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Oxidative Stress Induces Hypomethylation of LINE-1 and Hypermethylation of the RUNX3 Promoter in a Bladder Cancer Cell Line

  • Wongpaiboonwattana, Wikrom (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University) ;
  • Tosukhowong, Piyaratana (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University) ;
  • Dissayabutra, Thasinas (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University) ;
  • Mutirangura, Apiwat (Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University) ;
  • Boonla, Chanchai (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University)
  • Published : 2013.06.30

Abstract

Increased oxidative stress and changes in DNA methylation are frequently detected in bladder cancer patients. We previously demonstrated a relationship between increased oxidative stress and hypomethylation of the transposable long-interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1). Promoter hypermethylation of a tumor suppressor gene, runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), may also be associated with bladder cancer genesis. In this study, we investigated changes of DNA methylation in LINE-1 and RUNX3 promoter in a bladder cancer cell (UM-UC-3) under oxidative stress conditions, stimulated by challenge with $H_2O_2$ for 72 h. Cells were pretreated with an antioxidant, tocopheryl acetate for 1 h to attenuate oxidative stress. Methylation levels of LINE-1 and RUNX3 promoter were measured by combined bisulfite restriction analysis PCR and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Levels of LINE-1 methylation were significantly decreased in $H_2O_2$-treated cells, and reestablished after pretreated with tocopheryl acetate. Methylation of RUNX3 promoter was significantly increased in cells exposed to $H_2O_2$. In tocopheryl acetate pretreated cells, it was markedly decreased. In conclusion, hypomethylation of LINE-1 and hypermethylation of RUNX3 promoter in bladder cancer cell line was experimentally induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress promotes urothelial cell carcinogenesis through modulation of DNA methylation. Our data also imply that mechanistic pathways of ROS-induced alteration of DNA methylation in a repetitive DNA element and a gene promoter might differ.

Keywords

Bladder cancer;DNA methylation;LINE-1;RUNX3;oxidative stress

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research University

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