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Chemical Characterisation of Organic Functional Group Compositions in PM2.5 Collected at Nine Administrative Provinces in Northern Thailand during the Haze Episode in 2013

  • Pongpiachan, Siwatt (NIDA Research Center of Disaster Prevention Management, School of Social and Environmental Development, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA)) ;
  • Choochuay, Chomsri (NIDA Research Center of Disaster Prevention Management, School of Social and Environmental Development, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA)) ;
  • Chonchalar, Jittiphan (NIDA Research Center of Disaster Prevention Management, School of Social and Environmental Development, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA)) ;
  • Kanchai, Panatda (NIDA Research Center of Disaster Prevention Management, School of Social and Environmental Development, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA)) ;
  • Phonpiboon, Tidarat (NIDA Research Center of Disaster Prevention Management, School of Social and Environmental Development, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA)) ;
  • Wongsuesat, Sornsawan (NIDA Research Center of Disaster Prevention Management, School of Social and Environmental Development, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA)) ;
  • Chomkhae, Kanokwan (Bara Scientific Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Kittikoon, Itthipon (Bara Scientific Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Hiranyatrakul, Phoosak (Bara Scientific Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Cao, Junji (SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEECAS)) ;
  • Thamrongthanyawong, Sombat (NIDA Research Center of Disaster Prevention Management, School of Social and Environmental Development, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA))
  • Published : 2013.06.30

Abstract

Along with rapid economic growth and enhanced agricultural productivity, particulate matter emissions in the northern cities of Thailand have been increasing for the past two decades. This trend is expected to continue in the coming decade. Emissions of particulate matter have brought about a series of public health concerns, particularly chronic respiratory diseases. It is well known that lung cancer incidence among northern Thai women is one of the highest in Asia (an annual age-adjusted incidence rate of 37.4 per 100,000). This fact has aroused serious concern among the public and the government and has drawn much attention and interest from the scientific community. To investigate the potential causes of this relatively high lung cancer incidence, this study employed Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) transmission spectroscopy to identify the chemical composition of the $PM_{2.5}$ collected using Quartz Fibre Filters (QFFs) coupled with MiniVol$^{TM}$ portable air samplers (Airmetrics). $PM_{2.5}$ samples collected in nine administrative provinces in northern Thailand before and after the "Haze Episode" in 2013 were categorised based on three-dimensional plots of a principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation. In addition, the incremental lifetime exposure to $PM_{2.5}$ of both genders was calculated, and the first derivative of the FTIR spectrum of individual samples is here discussed.

Keywords

$PM_{2.5}$;FTIR;PCA;incremental lifetime exposure;northern provinces of Thailand

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