Patho-epidemiological Features of Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in an Endemic Region: a 20-year Retrospective Study

  • Hajmanoochehri, Fatemeh (Pathology Department, Metabolic and Diseases Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mohammadi, Navid (Department of Community Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Nasirian, Neda (Pathology Department, Metabolic and Diseases Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Hosseinkhani, Mohsen (Anatomical Sciences Department, Metabolic and Diseases Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2013.06.30


Background: Gastric and esophageal cancers are among the most lethal human malignancies worldwide. Of all malignancies estimated in Iran (47,100), gastric and esophageal cancers were responsible for 7,800 and 3,500 deaths in 2008 respectively. The present study aimed to provide an image of patho-epidemiological characteristics with their trends during two past decades with emphasis on topographic, morphologic, and some demographic features. Materials and Methods: In a hospital-based retrospective study in 2009, all pathological reports from esophageal endoscopies and gastric biopsies through a 20 years period (1989-2008) were collected and analyzed in four interval periods(five years each). Also, all eligible samples in hospital archives were enrolled for further testing. Besides, demography, topography and morphology of all samples were determined and analyzed by statistical software. Results: No significant statistical difference was seen in frequency of espohageal and gastric tumors throughout the study. Esophageal cancer cases were older than gastric. Sex ratio was 2.33/1 and men had a higher rate of both esophageal and gastric tumors. Stomach cancer included 64.3% of all cases. Inferior third and end of esophagus were common locations for esophageal tumors whereas proximal stomach was common for gastric tumors. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were common morphological types of tumors in esophagus and stomach respectively. Conclusions: Morphological trends showed an increase of esophageal adenocarcinoma and diffuse/intestinal ratio in stomach cancers. Trends in incidence from gastric cancer decreased based on topographic studies but we could not find a topographical trend toward cadia.


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