DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of onion peel extract supplementation on the lipid profile and antioxidative status of healthy young women: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial

  • Kim, Jungmi ;
  • Cha, Yong-Jun ;
  • Lee, Kyung-Hea ;
  • Park, Eunju
  • Received : 2012.08.06
  • Accepted : 2013.06.04
  • Published : 2013.10.01

Abstract

The consumption of fruits and vegetables that have high polyphenol content has been previously associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of onion peel extract on plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and leukocyte DNA damage. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Healthy female subjects received either onion peel extract or placebo (dextrin) for two weeks, underwent a 1-week washout period, and then received the other treatment for an additional two weeks. After two weeks of onion peel extract supplementation, the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and atherogenic index significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes or levels of lipid peroxidation markers following onion peel extract supplementation. Additionally, no significant difference was found in plasma antioxidant vitamin (retinol, tocopherols, carotenoids, and coenzyme Q10) levels or ex vivo $H_2O_2$-provoked oxidative DNA damage after onion peel extract supplementation. The present interventional study provides evidence of the health benefits of onion peel extract and demonstrates its effects in modulating lipid profiles in healthy young Korean women.

Keywords

Onion peel extract;lipid profile;antioxidant status;DNA damage;healthy young women

References

  1. Prochaska HJ, Santamaria AB, Talalay P. Rapid detection of inducers of enzymes that protect against carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992;89:2394-8. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.6.2394
  2. Schaefer EJ. Lipoproteins, nutrition, and heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:191-212. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/75.2.191
  3. Siems W, Quast S, Carluccio F, Wiswedel I, Hirsch D, Augustin W, Hampi H, Riehle M, Sommerburg O. Oxidative stress in chronic renal failure as a cardiovascular risk factor. Clin Nephrol 2002;58 Suppl 1:S12-9.
  4. Hertog MG, Kromhout D, Aravanis C, Blackburn H, Buzina R, Fidanza F, Giampaoli S, Jansen A, Menotti A, Nedeljkovic S, Pekkarinen M, Simic BS, Toshima H, Feskens EJ, Hollman PC, Katan MB. Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:381-6. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1995.00430040053006
  5. Bagchi D, Garg A, Krohn RL, Bagchi M, Tran MX, Stohs SJ. Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in vitro. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 1997;95:179-89.
  6. Ramanathan L, Das NP. Inhibitory effects of some natural products on metal-induced lipid oxidation in cooked fish. Biol Trace Elem Res 1992;34:35-44. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02783896
  7. Frankel EN, Kanner J, German JB, Parks E, Kinsella JE. Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein by phenolic substances in red wine. Lancet 1993;341:454-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(93)90206-V
  8. Jimenez-Aliaga K, Bermejo-Bescos P, Benedi J, Martin-Aragon S. Quercetin and rutin exhibit antiamyloidogenic and fibril-disaggregating effects in vitro and potent antioxidant activity in APPswe cells. Life Sci 2011;89:939-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2011.09.023
  9. Kim GN, Kwon YI, Jang HD. Protective mechanism of quercetin and rutin on 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride or $Cu^{2+}$-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Toxicol In Vitro 2011;25:138-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2010.10.005
  10. Mohammadzadeh S, Sharriatpanahi M, Hamedi M, Amanzadeh Y, Ebrahimi SE, Ostad SN. Antioxidant power of Iranian propolis extract. Food Chem 2007;103:729-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.014
  11. Crozier A, Lean ME, McDonald MS, Black C. Quantitative analysis of the flavonoid content of commercial tomatoes, onions, lettuce, and celery. J Agric Food Chem 1997;45:590-5. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960339y
  12. Beutler E. Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods. New York (NY): Grune and Stratton; 1984. p.71-3.
  13. Jakob E, Elmadfa I. Rapid HPLC assay for the assessment of vitamin K1, A, E and beta-carotene status in children (7-19 years). Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1995;65:31-5.
  14. Aebi H. Catalase. In: Bergmeyer HU, editor. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Vol. 2. Weinheim: Verlag Chemie; 1974. p.673-84.
  15. Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 1974;47:469-74. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1974.tb03714.x
  16. Rice-Evans C, Miller NJ. Total antioxidant status in plasma and body fluids. Methods Enzymol 1994;234:279-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(94)34095-1
  17. Singh NP, McCoy MT, Tice RR, Schneider EL. A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp Cell Res 1988;175:184-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-4827(88)90265-0
  18. Lee KH, Kim Y, Park E, Cho S. Study on dietary habit and effect of onion powder supplementation on serum lipid levels in early diagnosed hyperlipidemic patients. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2008;37:561-70. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2008.37.5.561
  19. Kumari K, Augusti KT. Lipid lowering effect of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide from Allium cepa Linn in high cholesterol diet fed rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;109:367-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.07.045
  20. Yamamoto Y, Yasuoka A. Welsh onion attenuates hyperlipidemia in rats fed on high-fat high-sucrose diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2010;74:402-4. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.90613
  21. Koo SI, Noh SK. Green tea as inhibitor of the intestinal absorption of lipids: potential mechanism for its lipid-lowering effect. J Nutr Biochem 2007;18:179-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2006.12.005
  22. Bordia A, Verma SK, Vyas AK, Khabya BL, Rathore AS, Bhu N, Bedi HK. Effect of essential oil of onion and garlic on experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis 1977;26: 379-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(77)90092-2
  23. Singh BN, Singh BR, Singh RL, Prakash D, Singh DP, Sarma BK, Upadhyay G, Singh HB. Polyphenolics from various extracts/ fractions of red onion (Allium cepa) peel with potent antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47:1161-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.02.004
  24. Gnoni GV, Paglialonga G, Siculella L. Quercetin inhibits fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in rat-liver cells. Eur J Clin Invest 2009;39:761-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2362.2009.02167.x
  25. Park J, Kim J, Kim MK. Onion flesh and onion peel enhance antioxidant status in aged rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2007;53:21-9. https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.53.21
  26. Murota K, Hotta A, Ido H, Kawai Y, Moon JH, Sekido K, Hayashi H, Inakuma T, Terao J. Antioxidant capacity of albuminbound quercetin metabolites after onion consumption in humans. J Med Invest 2007;54:370-4. https://doi.org/10.2152/jmi.54.370
  27. Boyle SP, Dobson VL, Duthie SJ, Kyle JA, Collins AR. Absorption and DNA protective effects of flavonoid glycosides from an onion meal. Eur J Nutr 2000;39:213-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003940070014
  28. Manach C, Morand C, Crespy V, Demigne C, Texier O, Regerat F, Remesy C. Quercetin is recovered in human plasma as conjugated derivatives which retain antioxidant properties. FEBS Lett 1998;426:331-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00367-6
  29. Morand C, Crespy V, Manach C, Besson C, Demigne C, Remesy C. Plasma metabolites of quercetin and their antioxidant properties. Am J Physiol 1998;275:R212-9.
  30. Day AJ, Mellon F, Barron D, Sarrazin G, Morgan MR, Williamson G. Human metabolism of dietary flavonoids: identification of plasma metabolites of quercetin. Free Radic Res 2001; 35:941-52. https://doi.org/10.1080/10715760100301441
  31. Graefe EU, Wittig J, Mueller S, Riethling AK, Uehleke B, Drewelow B, Pforte H, Jacobasch G, Derendorf H, Veit M. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of quercetin glycosides in humans. J Clin Pharmacol 2001;41:492-9. https://doi.org/10.1177/00912700122010366
  32. Yamamoto N, Moon JH, Tsushida T, Nagao A, Terao J. Inhibitory effect of quercetin metabolites and their related derivatives on copper ion-induced lipid peroxidation in human low-density lipoprotein. Arch Biochem Biophys 1999;372:347-54. https://doi.org/10.1006/abbi.1999.1516

Cited by

  1. Antioxidative Activity of Onion Peel Extract in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Study vol.20, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.15430/JCP.2015.20.3.202
  2. Evidence-Based Approach to Fiber Supplements and Clinically Meaningful Health Benefits, Part 2 vol.50, pp.2, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1097/NT.0000000000000089
  3. Comparison of the urinary excretion of quercetin glycosides from red onion and aglycone from dietary supplements in healthy subjects: a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study vol.6, pp.5, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1039/C5FO00155B
  4. Onion peel extract reduces the percentage of body fat in overweight and obese subjects: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study vol.10, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2016.10.2.175
  5. The Effect of Onion Peel Extract on Inflammatory Mediators in Korean Overweight and Obese Women vol.5, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7762/cnr.2016.5.4.261
  6. Impact of Flavonols on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers:  A Meta‐Analysis of Randomized Controlled Human  Trials to Explore the Role of Inter‐Individual  Variability vol.9, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9020117