Empirical Evaluation of Optimal User-Centered LED Lighting Environments in Residential Bathrooms

  • Received : 2013.07.08
  • Accepted : 2013.07.26
  • Published : 2013.09.30


This user-centered research aims to empirically evaluate color temperature (K) and illuminance (lx) of residential bathroom lightings to determine the most optimal lighting conditions for productive task performance as well as for satisfying users' emotional needs. Using 3 LED lighting fixtures, 4 types of lighting contexts were investigated; main lighting, task lighting, shower lighting, and bath lighting. Two lightings were installed parallel to the vertical edges of the main bathroom mirror to be used as main and task lighting, while another fixture was installed above the bathtub to be used for shower and bathing. For each lighting context, subjects (N=54) were instructed to perform a few tasks during which time the users were exposed to different lighting conditions with color temperature ranging from 2700 K ~ 6500 K and illuminance ranging from 100 lx ~ 700 lx. Upon completing the given tasks, subjects were asked to evaluate the lighting conditions and their applicability for performing the given tasks. Based on the user evaluations, the most optimal lighting conditions for the different lighting scenarios are as follow: 1) 3500 K ~ 4300 K and 150 lx for main lighting, 2) 3500 K ~ 4300 K and 500 lx ~ 700 lx for task lighting, and 3) 2700 K ~ 3500 K and 100 lx ~ 150 lx for shower/bath lighting. These results can be used to adjust the lighting standards suggested by KS, as well as be utilized by both engineers and designers in designing new types of user-centered bathroom lightings.