DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Correlation of Anthropometric Data, Nutrient Intakes and Serum Lipids in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

폐경 전·후 여성들의 체위, 영양소 섭취 상태 및 혈중 지질과의 관련성에 관한 연구

  • Choi, Yun-Hee (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Baewha Women's University) ;
  • Song, Tae-Hee (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Baewha Women's University)
  • 최윤희 (배화여자대학교 식품영양과) ;
  • 송태희 (배화여자대학교 식품영양과)
  • Received : 2013.04.23
  • Accepted : 2013.09.06
  • Published : 2013.09.30

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the anthropometric data, nutrient intakes and serum profiles in premenopausal and postmenopausal women living in Gyeonggi-do Province, Republic of Korea. The subjects were 49 premenopausal women and 63 postmenopausal women who are not taking any hormone or cardiovascular drugs. Anthropometric measurements were taken by a trained practitioner and the data for dietary intakes were obtained by a 24-hour recall method. Serum samples were collected and analyzed for the total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein fractions. The mean age of the premenopausal women was $45.17{\pm}3.28$ years and that of the postmenopausal women was 2$62.5{\pm}4.14$ years. The height and weight were $157.86{\pm}$4.35 cm, $58.75{\pm}6.01$ kg in premenopausal women and $156.42{\pm}3.62$ cm, $57.63{\pm}5.38$ kg in postmenopausal women, respectively. WHR (waist hip ratio) in postmenopausal women was significantly higher than that of premenopausal women (p<0.05). There were no differences between the pre-and postmenopausal women in the intakes of energy, protein, fat, Ca, Fe, vitamin A, vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, niacin, vitamin C and vitamin E. However carbohydrate and Na intakes in postmenopausal women were significantly higher than those of premenopausal women. In postmenopausal women, Ca intake was below and Na intake was extremely high considering KDRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans). Serum triglyceride in postmenopausal women was positively correlated with age, BMI (body mass index) and WHR. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride in postmenopausal women showed significantly negative correlations with fiber intake. These results suggest that it is necessary to help postmenopausal women maintain a healthy body weight. Postmenopausal women needs to increase Ca (calcium) intakes and diet quality by decreasing the intakes of Na (sodium). In addition, an adequate intakes of fiber is recommended for postmenopausal women to prevent cardiovascular disease.

References

  1. Ayres, Abplanalp W, Liu JH, Subbiah MT. 1998. Mechanisms involved in the protective effect of 17 ${\beta}$-estradiol on lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Am J Physiol 274:1002-1008 https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.1998.274.4.C1002
  2. Bar J, Tepper R, Fucks J. 1993. The effect of estrogen replacement therapy on platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate release in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 81: 261-264
  3. Choi EJ, Lee HO. 1996. Influencing factors on the bone status of rural menopausal women. Kor J Nutr 29:1013-1020
  4. Choi MJ. 2001. Effects of exercise and calcium intake on blood pressure and blood lipids in premenopausal women. Kor J Nutr 34:62-68
  5. Donahue RP, Abbert RD. 1987. Central obesity and coronary heart disease in men. Lancet 1:822-824
  6. Erden F, Gulenc S, Torun M, Kocer Z, Simsek B, Nebiouglu S. 1985. Ascorbic acid effect on some lipid fractions in human beings. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol 7:31-88
  7. Gey KF, Puska P, Jordan P, Moser U. 1991. Inverse correlation between plasma vitamin E and morality from ischemic heart disease in cross-cultural epidemiology. Am J Clin Nutr 53: 326S-334S https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/53.1.326S
  8. Goldbourt U. 1987. High risk versus public health strategies in primary prevention of coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 45:1185-1192 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/45.5.1185
  9. Heiss G, Tamir I, Davis CE, Tyroler HA, Rifkand BM, Schonfeld G, Jacobs D, Frantz ID. 1980. The lipid research clinics program prevalence study. Circulation 61:302-312 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.61.2.302
  10. Jenkin DJA, Reynolds D, Slavin B. 1986. Dietary fiber and blood lipids: Treatment of hypercholesterolemia with guar crispbread. Am J Clin Nutr 33:575-579
  11. Joo EJ 2005. Effects of anthropometric indices and nutrients inake on bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in Korean premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 15:531-541
  12. Kannel AB. 1993. Metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease in women: perspective from the Framingham Study. Atherosclerosis 99:207-217 https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(93)90023-N
  13. Kartha VNR, Krishnamurthy S. 1997. Antioxidant function of vitamin A. Internat J Vit Nutr Res 47:394-401
  14. Kim IS, Seo EA. 2000. A long term observation of total cholesterol, blood pressure, BMI and blood glucose concerned with dietary intake. Kor J Comm Nutr 5:172-184
  15. Kim SH, Kim NY, Yeo IS. 2007. A study on the relationship between nutritional status and select blood parameters in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 17:483-489
  16. Korea National Statistical office. 2007. 2007 Statistics on aged. Korea National Statistical Office
  17. Kovanen PT, Brown MS, Goldstein JL. 1979. Increased binding of low density lipoprotein to liver membranes from rats treated with 17 ${\alpha}$-ethinyl estradiol. J Biol Chem 254:11367-11373
  18. Lee HS, Kim MH, Lee DH, Sung CJ. 2006. The relationship between some blood parameters and antioxidant enzyme activity in Korean postmenopausal women. Kor Nutr Soc 39:476-484
  19. Lee KS, Kim JM. 2003. Comparison of nurtients intake, bone density, total cholesterol and blood glucose in women in Taegu city. J Korean Dietetic Association 9:81-93
  20. Lee YC, Synn HA, lee KY, Park YH, Rhee CS. 1992. A study on concentrations of serum lipids and food & daily habit of health Korean adults emphasis on serum triglyceride-. Kor J Lipidology 2:41-51
  21. Lee YN, Kim WG, Lee SK, Chung SJ, Choi KS, Kwon S, Lee EW, Mo S, Yoo DI. 1992. Nutrition survey of children attending an elementary school with a school lunch program. in socioeconomically high apartment compound of Seoul. Kor J Nutr 25:56-72
  22. Moon SJ, Lee KY, Kim SY. 1980. Application of convenient method for the study of nutritional status of middle aged Korean women. Evaluation of a "Convenient Method" for the estimation of dietary food consumption. Yonseinonchong, 203-218
  23. Nam HW, Kim EK, Cho UH. 2003. Comparison of anthropometry, serum lipid levels and nutrient intakes of two groups based on their drinking, smoking, exercise, menopause and obesity status - in residents of Youngdong area -. Kor J Comm Nutr 8:770-780
  24. Ngoan LT, Mizoue T, Fujino Y, Tokui N, Yoshimura T. Yamakawa H. 2002. Dietary factors and stomach cancer mortality. Br J Cancer 87:37-42 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6600415
  25. Oh KW, Lee SI, Song KS, Nam CM, Kim YO, Lee YC. 1995. Fatty acid Intake patterns and the relation of fatty acid intake to serum lipids of the Korean adults. Kor J Lipidology 5:167-181
  26. Park MK, Lee HO. 2003. A comparative analysis on the environmental and dietary factors in Korean adult males classified by serum lipid profiles. Kor J Nutr 36:64-74
  27. Park YH, Rhee CS, Lee YC. 1993. Distribution patterns of serum lipids by age and the relation of serum lipids to degree of obesity and blood pressure in Korean adults. Kor J Lipidology 3:165-180
  28. Park YS, Kim HK, Park Ks, Kim SY, Park YB, Cho BY, Lee HK, Koh CS, Min HK, Kim JQ, Kim YI, Shin YS, Paik HY. 1993. Community-based epidemiologic study on serum lipid profiles and their interaction with other aherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors in Yonchon community. Kor J Lipidology 3:191-203
  29. Preuss HG. 1993. Nutrition and disease of women: cardiovascular disorders. J Am Coll Nutr 12:417-425 https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.1993.10718331
  30. Ryu ON, Lee SH, Park KW, Kim EK. 1999. Nutritional iron status in pre-and postmenopause middle-aged women in Kangnam area. J Korean Dietetic Association 5:164-174
  31. Sacks FM, Walsh BW. 1990. The effects of reproductive hormones an serum lipoproteins: unresolved issues in biology and clinical practice. Ann NY Acad Sci 592:272-285 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1990.tb30339.x
  32. Story JA. Ordy JM, Harmon D, Alfinslater R. 1984. Aging and Lipid Metabolism. p.77. Nutrition in Gerontology Raven Press. New York
  33. Sung CJ, Baek SK, Lee HS, Kim MH, Choi SH, Lee SY, Lee DH. 2001. A study of body anthropometry and dietary factors affecting bone mineral density in Korean pre-and postmenopausal women. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 30:159-167
  34. Takeda Y, Yoneda T, Demura M, Furukawa K, Miyamori I, Mabuchi H. 2001. Effects of high sodium intake on cardiovascular aldosterone synthesis in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens 19: 635-639 https://doi.org/10.1097/00004872-200103001-00017
  35. Teegarden D, Lyle RM, McCabe GP, McCabe LD, Proulx WR, Michon K, Knight AP, Johnson CC, Weaver CM. 1998. Dietary calcium, protein, and phosphorus are related to bone mineral density and content in young women. Am J Clin Nutr 68:749-754 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/68.3.749
  36. Walsh BW, Schiff I, Rosner B, Greenderg L, Ravnikar V, Sacks FM. 1991. Effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on the concentrations and metabolism of plasma lipoproteins. N Engl J Med 325:1196-1204 https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199110243251702
  37. Weaver CM, Peacock M, Martin BR, Plawecki KL, Mccabe GP. 1996. Calcium retention estimated from indicators of skeletal status in adolescent girls and young women. Am J Clin Nutr 64:64-70
  38. Yim KS, Yoon EY, Kim C, Kim KT, Kim CI, Mo S, Choi H. 1993. Eating behavior, obesity and serum lipid levels in children. Kor J Nutr 26:56-66
  39. Yu CH, Kim HS, Park MY. 1999. Some factors affecting serum lipid of Korean rural women. Kor J Nutr 32:927-934

Cited by

  1. Evaluation of Anthropometric Characteristics, Bone Density, Food Intake Frequency, Nutrient Intakes, and Diet Quality of Preand Postmenopausal Women : Based on 2008∼2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey vol.27, pp.5, 2017, https://doi.org/10.17495/easdl.2017.10.27.5.500