The Effect of Using Smart-Phones on Neck and Shoulder Muscle Activities and Fatigue

핸드폰 사용이 목과 어깨 근육의 근육활성도와 피로도에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2013.07.13
  • Accepted : 2013.08.05
  • Published : 2013.09.17


The smart-phone has become a necessity for most people. In this study, we determined that using a smart-phone for 20 minutes can cause increased neck and shoulder muscle activities and fatigue. Seventeen healthy male smart-phone users who attended Yonsei University played a smart-phone game for 20 minutes and changes in their bilateral cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius muscle activities and fatigue were measured. To assess muscle activities and fatigue, we used the following variables: the median frequency, the 50th percentile Amplitude probability distribution function (APDF) value (median load), and the discrepancy in the 90th percentile APDF value and the 10th percentile APDF value (APDF range). A paired t-test was used to compare pre-smart-phone-use status with post-smart-phone-use-status. The median frequency of the bilateral cervical erector spinae and the upper trapezius decreased significantly after 20 minutes of smart-phone use (p<.05). In addition, the 50th percentile APDF value of the bilateral cervical erector spinae and the right upper trapezius increased significantly (p<.05). The APDF range of the bilateral cervical erector spinae and the upper trapezius also increased significantly (p<.05). However, the 50th percentile APDF range of the left upper trapezius was not significantly different (p>.05). These findings suggest that using smart-phones for 20 minutes can induce muscle fatigue and increased neck and shoulder muscle activities.


Amplitude probability distribution function;Cervical erector spinae;Median frequency;Smart-phone;Upper trapezius


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