DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Chelated Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profiles, and Fecal Noxious Gas Emission in Weanling Pigs

  • Zhang, Zheng Fan (Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Cho, Jin Ho (Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, In Ho (Department of Animal Resource & Science, Dankook University)
  • Received : 2013.05.31
  • Accepted : 2013.08.14
  • Published : 2013.08.31

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chelated Cu and Zn on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, and fecal noxious gas emission in weanling pigs. A total of 90 weanling pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of $5.27{\pm}0.04kg$ were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments for 42 d. Pigs were then fed a control diet (CON) or a Zinpro diet (CON + 0.1% chelate copper and zinc). There were nine replicate-pens with five pigs in each pen. During d 0 to 14 and d 14 to 28, the ADFI decreased (p<0.05) and the G/F increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the Zinpro diet compared with those that received the CON diet. During d 28 to 42, the ADFI increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the Zinpro diet relative to those fed the CON diet. Additionally, the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, N, and energy increased (p<0.05) in the Zinpro group when compared to the CON group on d 14 and 28. The lymphocyte percentage was also greater (p<0.05) in the Zinpro group than in the CON group. Overall, dietary supplementation with 0.1% chelate copper and zinc improved the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in weanling pigs.

Keywords

Blood profiles;Growth performance;Nutrient digestibility;Weanling pig;Zinpro

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration

References

  1. AOAC. 1995. Official Method of Analysis, 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
  2. AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD.
  3. Ball, R. O. and Aherne, F. X. 1987. Influence of dietary nutrient density, level of feed intake and weaning age on young pigs. II. Apparent nutrient digestibility and incidence and severity of diarrhea. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 67, 1105-1115. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas87-116
  4. Broom, L. J., Miller, H. M., Kerr, K. G. and Knapp, J. S. 2006. Effects of zinc oxide and Enterococcus faecium SF68 dietary supplementation on the performance, intestinal microbiota and immune status of weaned piglets. Res. Vet. Sci. 80:45-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2005.04.004
  5. Carlson, M. S., Boren, C. A., Wu, C., Huntington, C. E., Bollinger, D. W. and Veum, T. L. 2004. Evaluation of various inclusion rates of organic zinc either as polysaccharide or chelate complex on growth performance, plasma, and excretion in nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1359-1366. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8251359x
  6. Castillo, M., Martin-Orue, S. M., Taylor-Pickard, J. A., Perez, J. F. and Gasa, J. 2008. Use of mannanoligosaccharides and zinc chelate as growth promoters and diarrhea preventative in weaning pigs: Effects on microbiota and gut function. J. Anim. Sci. 86:94-101. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-686
  7. Cromwell, G. L., Stahly, T. S. and Monegue, H. J. 1989. Effects of source and level of copper on performance and liver copper stores in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2996-3002. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1989.67112996x
  8. Fouad, M. T. 1976. The physiochemical role of chelated minerals in maintaining optimal body biological funclions. I. Appl. Nutr. 285.
  9. Hall, V. L., Ewan, R. C. and Wannemuehler, M. J. 1993. Effect of zinc deficiency and zinc source on performance and immune response in young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71 (Suppl. 1):173.
  10. Hill, G. M., Cromwell, G. L., Crenshaw, T. D., Dove, C. R., Ewan, R. C., Knabe, D. A., Lewis, A. J., Libal, G. W., Mahan, D. C., Shurson, G. C., Southern, L. L. and Veum, T. L. 2000. Growth promotion effects and plasma changes from feeding high dietary concentrations of zinc and copper to weanling pigs (regional study). J. Anim. Sci. 78:1010-1016. https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.7841010x
  11. Hill, G. M., Mahan, D. C., Carter, S. D., Cromwell, G. L., Ewan, R. C., Harrold, R. L., Lewis, A. J., Miller, P. S., Shurson, G. C. and Veum, T. J. 2001. Effects of pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide with or without the inclusion of an antimicrobial agent on nursery pig performance. J. Anim. Sci. 79:934-941. https://doi.org/10.2527/2001.794934x
  12. Hojberg, O., Canibe, N., Poulsen, H. D., Hedemann, M. S. and Jensen, B. B. 2005. Influence of dietary zinc oxide and copper sulfate on the gastrointestinal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:2267-2277. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.5.2267-2277.2005
  13. Jondreville, C, Revy, P. S. and Dourmad, J. Y. 2003. Dietary means to better control the environmental impact of copper and zinc by pigs from weaning to slaughter. Livest. Prod. Sci. 84:147-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2003.09.011
  14. Mawhinney, T. P., Feather, M. S., Barbero, G. J. and Martinez, J. R. 1980. The rapid, quantitative determination of neutral sugars (as aldononitrile acetates) and amino sugars (as O-methyloxime acetates) in glycoproteins by gas-liquid chromatography. Anal. Biochem. 101:112-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(80)90048-2
  15. Mazzoni, M., Merialdi, G., Sarli, G., Trevisi, P. and Bosi, P. 2010. Effect of two doses of different zinc sources (inorganic vs. chelated form) on the epithelial proliferative activity and the apoptotic index of intestinal mucosa of early-weaned pigs orally challenged with E. coli K88. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23:777-785. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2010.90352
  16. Moore, S. 1963. On the determination of cystine as a cysteic acid. J. Biol. Sci. 238: 235-237.
  17. Mullan, B. P., Hernandez, A. and Pluske, J. R. 2004. Influence of the form and rate of Cu and Zn supplementation on the performance of growing pigs. Abstract in Biotechnology in the Feed Industry, Proc. Alltech's 20th Annu. Symp. T. P. Lyons and K. A. Jacques, ed. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK.
  18. Mullan, B. P., Wilson, R. H., Harris, D., Allen, J. G. and Naylor, A. 2002. Supplementation of weaner pig diets with zinc oxide or Bioplex$^{TM}$. Zinc. Pages 419-424 in Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries, Proc. Alltech's 18th Annu. Symp. T. P. Lyons and K. A. Jacques, ed. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK.
  19. NRC. 1998. Nutrient Requirement of Swine. 10th ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.
  20. Roselli, M., Finamore, A., Britti, M. S., Bosi, P., Oswald, I. and Mengheri, E. 2005. Alternatives to in-feed antibiotics in pigs: evaluation of probiotics, zinc or organic acids as protective agents for the intestinal mucosa. A comparison of in vitro and in vivo results. Anim. Res. 54:203-218. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2005012
  21. SAS Institute. 2006. SAS/STAT user's guide. Release 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  22. Sauer, W. C., Fan, M. Z., Mosenthin, R. and Drochner, W. 2000. Methods for measuring ileal amino acid digestibility in pigs. In: D' Mello, J. P. F. (Ed.), Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition. CABI Publishing, pp. 279-306.
  23. Shelton, N. W., Tokach, M. D., Nelssen, J. L., Goodband, R. D., Dritz, S. S., DeRouchey, J. M. and Hill, G. M. 2011. Effects of copper sulfate, tri-basic copper chloride, and zinc oxide on weanling pig performance. 89:2440-2451. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3432
  24. Smith, J. W. II, Tokach, M. D., Goodband, R. D., Nelssen, J. L. and Richert, B. T. 1997. Effects of the interrelationship between zinc oxide and copper sulfate on growth performance of early weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1861-1866. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.7571861x
  25. Spears, J. W. 1996. Optimizing mineral levels and sources for farm animals. Pages 259-275 in Nutrient Management of Food Animals to Enhance and Protect the Environment. E. T. Kornegay, ed. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
  26. Stansbury, W. F., Tribble, L. F. and Orr Jr, D. E. 1990. Effect of chelated copper sources on performance of nursery and growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1318-1322. https://doi.org/10.2527/1990.6851318x
  27. Underwood, E. J. and Suttle, N. F. 1999. The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock, 3rd ed. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
  28. Van Heugten, E., Spears, J. W., Kegley, E. B., Ward, J. D. and Qureshi, M. A. 2003. Effects of organic forms of zinc on growth performance, tissue zinc distribution, and immune response of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2063-2071. https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.8182063x
  29. Williams, C. H., David, D. J. and Iismaa, O. 1962. The determination of chromic oxide in faeces samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. J. Agr. Sci. 59:381-385. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002185960001546X
  30. Williams, S. B., Southern, L. L. and Binder, T. D. 2005. Effects of supplemental phytase and pharmacological concentrations of zinc on growth performance and tissue zinc concentrations of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 83:386-392. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.832386x