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Rotor Speed-based Droop of a Wind Generator in a Wind Power Plant for the Virtual Inertial Control

  • Lee, Jinsik ;
  • Kim, Jinho ;
  • Kim, Yeon-Hee ;
  • Chun, Yeong-Han ;
  • Lee, Sang Ho ;
  • Seok, Jul-Ki ;
  • Kang, Yong Cheol
  • Received : 2013.04.09
  • Accepted : 2013.05.27
  • Published : 2013.09.01

Abstract

The frequency of a power system should be kept within limits to produce high-quality electricity. For a power system with a high penetration of wind generators (WGs), difficulties might arise in maintaining the frequency, because modern variable speed WGs operate based on the maximum power point tracking control scheme. On the other hand, the wind speed that arrives at a downstream WG is decreased after having passed one WG due to the wake effect. The rotor speed of each WG may be different from others. This paper proposes an algorithm for assigning the droop of each WG in a wind power plant (WPP) based on the rotor speed for the virtual inertial control considering the wake effect. It assumes that each WG in the WPP has two auxiliary loops for the virtual inertial control, i.e. the frequency deviation loop and the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) loop. To release more kinetic energy, the proposed algorithm assigns the droop of each WG, which is the gain of the frequency deviation loop, depending on the rotor speed of each WG, while the gains for the ROCOF loop of all WGs are set to be equal. The performance of the algorithm is investigated for a model system with five synchronous generators and a WPP, which consists of 15 doubly-fed induction generators, by varying the wind direction as well as the wind speed. The results clearly indicate that the algorithm successfully reduces the frequency nadir as a WG with high wind speed releases more kinetic energy for the virtual inertial control. The algorithm might help maximize the contribution of the WPP to the frequency support.

Keywords

Virtual inertial control;Rotor speed-based droop;Wind power plant control;Frequency support and Wake effect

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)