- Volume 8 Issue 5
DOI QR Code
Rotor Speed-based Droop of a Wind Generator in a Wind Power Plant for the Virtual Inertial Control
- Lee, Jinsik ;
- Kim, Jinho ;
- Kim, Yeon-Hee ;
- Chun, Yeong-Han ;
- Lee, Sang Ho ;
- Seok, Jul-Ki ;
- Kang, Yong Cheol
- Received : 2013.04.09
- Accepted : 2013.05.27
- Published : 2013.09.01
The frequency of a power system should be kept within limits to produce high-quality electricity. For a power system with a high penetration of wind generators (WGs), difficulties might arise in maintaining the frequency, because modern variable speed WGs operate based on the maximum power point tracking control scheme. On the other hand, the wind speed that arrives at a downstream WG is decreased after having passed one WG due to the wake effect. The rotor speed of each WG may be different from others. This paper proposes an algorithm for assigning the droop of each WG in a wind power plant (WPP) based on the rotor speed for the virtual inertial control considering the wake effect. It assumes that each WG in the WPP has two auxiliary loops for the virtual inertial control, i.e. the frequency deviation loop and the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) loop. To release more kinetic energy, the proposed algorithm assigns the droop of each WG, which is the gain of the frequency deviation loop, depending on the rotor speed of each WG, while the gains for the ROCOF loop of all WGs are set to be equal. The performance of the algorithm is investigated for a model system with five synchronous generators and a WPP, which consists of 15 doubly-fed induction generators, by varying the wind direction as well as the wind speed. The results clearly indicate that the algorithm successfully reduces the frequency nadir as a WG with high wind speed releases more kinetic energy for the virtual inertial control. The algorithm might help maximize the contribution of the WPP to the frequency support.
Virtual inertial control;Rotor speed-based droop;Wind power plant control;Frequency support and Wake effect
- T. Ackermann, Wind Power in Power System, 2nd Edition, England, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012.
- Global wind energy outlook 2010, Global Wind Energy Council, Oct. 2010.
- Global Wind Energy Report: Annual market update 2011, Global Wind Energy Council, Mar. 2012.
- J. Ekanayake and N. Jenkins, "Comparison of the response of doubly fed and fixed-speed induction generator wind turbines to changes in network frequency," IEEE Transaction on Energy con-version, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2004, pp. 800-802. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2004.827712
- J. Morren, S. Haan, W. L. Kling, and J. A. Ferreira, "Wind turbines emulating inertia and supporting primary frequency control," IEEE Transaction on Power systems, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2006, pp. 433-434. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2005.861956
- R. G. Almeida and J. A. P. Lopes, "Participation of doubly red induction wind generator in system frequency regulation," IEEE Transaction on Power systems, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2007, pp. 944-950. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2007.901096
- Z. S. Zhang, Y. Z. Sun, J. Lin, and G. J. Li, "Coordinated frequency regulation by doubly fed induction generator-based wind power plants," IET Renew. Power Gener., Vol. 6, No. 1, 2012, pp. 38-47. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2010.0208
- F. Koch, M. Gresch, F. Shewarega, I. Erlich, and U. Bachmann "Consideration of wind farm wake effect in power system dynamic simulation," Power Tech, Russia, June 27-30, 2005.
- N. O. Jensen, "A Note on Wind Generation lnteraction," RISO, Nov 1983.
- B. Shen, B. Mwinyiwiwa, Y. Zhang, and B. Ooi, "Sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracking of Wind by DFIG Using Rotor Position Phase Lock Loop," IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2009, pp. 942-951. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2008.2009938
- O. Anaya-lara, N. Jenkins, J. Ekanayake, P. Cartwright, and M. Hughes, Wind Energy Generation Modeling and Control, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2009.
- Experiments on the Performance of Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine with Passive Pitch Control by Disk Pulley vol.9, pp.12, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3390/en9050353
- FPGA-based Centralized Controller for Multiple PV Generators Tied to the DC Bus vol.14, pp.4, 2014, https://doi.org/10.6113/JPE.2014.14.4.733
- Power Smoothening Control of Wind Farms Based on Inertial Effect of Wind Turbine Systems vol.9, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5370/JEET.2014.9.3.1096
- Review of DFIG wind turbine impact on power system dynamic performances vol.12, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/tee.22379
- Comparative study of voltage oriented and frequency coordinated control of grid connected doubly fed induction generator vol.6, pp.2, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4873131
- Adaptive Multiple MPC for a Wind Farm with DFIG: a Decentralized-Coordinated Approach vol.11, pp.5, 2016, https://doi.org/10.5370/JEET.2016.11.5.1116
- Stepwise inertial control of a wind turbine generator to minimize a second frequency dip vol.6, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1080/22348972.2016.1202396
Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)