DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Ensiling Fermentation and Aerobic Deterioration on the Bacterial Community in Italian Ryegrass, Guinea Grass, and Whole-crop Maize Silages Stored at High Moisture Content

  • Li, Yanbing ;
  • Nishino, Naoki
  • Received : 2013.05.27
  • Accepted : 2013.05.17
  • Published : 2013.09.01

Abstract

The effects of storage period and aerobic deterioration on the bacterial community were examined in Italian ryegrass (IR), guinea grass (GG), and whole-crop maize (WM) silages. Direct-cut forages were stored in a laboratory silo for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120 d without any additives; live counts, content of fermentation products, and characteristics of the bacterial community were determined. 2,3-Butanediol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the dominant fermentation products in the IR, GG, and WM silages, respectively. The acetic acid content increased as a result of prolonged ensiling, regardless of the type of silage crop, and the changes were distinctively visible from the beginning of GG ensiling. Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, and Enterobacter sp. were the major bacteria in the IR silage, indicating that alcoholic fermentation may be due to the activity of enterobacteria. Staphylococcus sciuri and Bacillus pumilus were detected when IR silage was spoiled, whereas between aerobically stable and unstable silages, no differences were seen in the bacterial community at silo opening. Lactococcus lactis was a representative bacterium, although acetic acid was the major fermentation product in the GG silage. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Morganella morganii were suggested to be associated with the increase in acetic acid due to prolonged storage. Enterobacter cloacae appeared when the GG silage was spoiled. In the WM silage, no distinctive changes due to prolonged ensiling were seen in the bacterial community. Throughout the ensiling, Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella confusa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were present in addition to L. plantarum, L. brevis, and L. lactis. Upon deterioration, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Bacillus gibsonii were detected. These results demonstrate the diverse bacterial community that evolves during ensiling and aerobic spoilage of IR, GG, and WM silages.

Keywords

Bacteria;Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis;Italian Ryegrass;Guinea Grass;Whole-crop Maize;Silage

References

  1. Courtin, M. G., and S. F. Spoelstra. 1990. A simulation model of the microbiological and chemical changes accompanying the initial stage of aerobic deterioration of silage. Grass Forage Sci. 45:153-165. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1990.tb02196.x
  2. Driehuis, F., and E. S. Oude. 2000. The impact of the quality of silage on animal health and food safety: A review. Vet. Q. 22:212-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2000.9695061
  3. Giraffa, G., and E. Neviani. 2001. DNA-based, culture-independent strategies for evaluating microbial communities in food-associated ecosystems. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 67:19-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(01)00445-7
  4. Li, Y., and N. Nishino. 2011a. Bacterial and fungal communities of wilted Italian ryegrass silage inoculated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Lactobacillus buchneri. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 52:314-321. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2010.03000.x
  5. Li, Y., and N. Nishino. 2011b. Effects of inoculation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus buchneri on fermentation, aerobic stability and microbial communities in whole crop corn silage. Grassl. Sci. 57:184-191. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-697X.2011.00226.x
  6. Li, Y., and N. Nishino. 2011c. Monitoring the bacterial community of maize silage stored in a bunker silo inoculated with Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri. J. Appl. Microbiol. 110:1561-1570. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05010.x
  7. Lin, C., K. K. Bolsen, B. E. Brent, and D. Y. Fung. 1992. Epiphytic lactic acid bacteria succession during the pre-ensiling and ensiling periods of alfalfa and maize. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 73:375-387. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1992.tb04992.x
  8. Lindgren, S. E., L. T. Axelsson, and R. F. McFeeters. 1990. Anaerobic L-lactate degradation by Lactobacillus plantarum. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 66:209-213.
  9. McDonald, P., A. R. Henderson, and S. J. Heron. 1991. The biochemistry of silage. Chalcombe Publications, Lincoln, UK.
  10. Muck, R. E., R. E. Pitt, and R. Y. Leibensperger. 1991. A model of aerobic fungal growth in silage: 1. Microbial characteristics. Grass Forage Sci. 46:283-299. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1991.tb02234.x
  11. Nishino, N., Y. Li, C. Wang, and S. Parvin. 2012. Effects of wilting and molasses addition on fermentation and bacterial community in guinea grass silage. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 54:175-181. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2011.03191.x
  12. Nussio, L. G. 2005. Silage production from tropical forages. In: Silage production and utilization (Ed. R. S. Park, and M. D. Stronge), Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen. pp 97-107.
  13. Oude, E. S., F. Driehuis, P. M. Becker, J. C. Gottschal, F. Faber, and S. F. Spoelstra. 2001. The presence of Acetobacter sp. in ensiled forage crops and ensiled industrial byproducts. Med. Fac. Landbouww. Univ. Gent. 66:427-430.
  14. Parvin, S., and N. Nishino. 2009. Bacterial community associated with ensilage process of wilted guinea grass. J. Appl. Microbiol. 107:2029-2036. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04391.x
  15. Parvin, S., and N. Nishino. 2010. Succession of lactic acid bacteria in wilted rhodesgrass silage assessed by plate culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Grassl. Sci. 56:51-55. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-697X.2009.00173.x
  16. Woolford, M. K. 1990. The detrimental effects of air on silage. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 68:101-116. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1990.tb02554.x
  17. Ampe, F., O. N. Ben, C. Moizan, C. Wacher, and J. P. Guyot. 1999. Polyphasic study of the spatial distribution of microorganisms in Mexican pozol, a fermented maize dough, demonstrates the need for cultivation-independent methods to investigate traditional fermentations. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:5464-5473.
  18. Catchpoole, V. R., and E. F. Henzell. 1971. Silage and silagemaking from tropical herbage species. Herbage Abstr. 41:213-221.

Cited by

  1. Bacterial communities in alfalfa and corn silages produced in large-scale stack and bunker silos in China vol.60, pp.4, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1111/grs.12063
  2. Pediocin SA-1: A selective bacteriocin for controlling Listeria monocytogenes in maize silages vol.99, pp.10, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11121
  3. The dynamics of the bacterial communities developed in maize silage vol.10, pp.6, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.12751
  4. Fermentation quality and in vitro methane production of sorghum silage prepared with cellulase and lactic acid bacteria vol.30, pp.11, 2017, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0502

Acknowledgement

Supported by : State Educational Commission of Heilongjiang Province of China