Use of Awamori-pressed Lees and Tofu Lees as Feed Ingredients for Growing Male Goats

  • Nagamine, Itsuki (Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus) ;
  • Sunagawa, Katsunori (Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus) ;
  • Kina, Takashi (Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus)
  • Received : 2012.12.27
  • Accepted : 2013.05.17
  • Published : 2013.09.01


Awamori is produced by fermenting steamed indica rice. Awamori-pressed lees is a by-product of the Awamori production process. Tofu lees is a by-product of the Tofu production process. Research was conducted to test if dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a mixed feed ingredient for raising male goats. Eighteen male kids were divided into three groups of six animals (control feed group (CFG), Awamori-pressed lees mixed feed group (AMFG), Tofu lees mixed feed group (TMFG)). The CFG used feed containing 20% soybean meal as the main protein source, while the AMFG and TMFG used feed mixed with 20% dried Awamori-pressed lees or dried Tofu lees. The groups were fed mixed feed (volume to provide 100 g/d increase in body weight) and alfalfa hay cubes (2.0 kg/d) twice a day (10:00, 16:00). Klein grass hay and water was given ad libitum. Hay intake was measured at 10:00 and 16:00. Body weight and size measurements were taken once a month. At the end of the experiment, a blood sample was drawn from the jugular vein of each animal and the carcass characteristics, the physical and chemical characteristics of loin were analyzed. DCP and TDN intakes in AMFG and TMFG showed no significant difference to the CFG. Cumulative measurements of growth in body weight and size over the 10 mo period in the AMFG and TMFG were similar to the CFG. Blood parameter values were similar to those in normal goats. Dressing carcass weight and percentages, and total weight of meat in the AMFG were similar to that in the CFG, but smaller in the TMFG. The compressed meat juice ratio was higher in both the TMFG and AMFG than the CFG. While the fat in corn, Awamori-pressed lees, and Tofu lees contains more than 50% linoleic acid, the loin fat in both the AMFG and TMFG was very low in linoleic acid due to the increase in the content of oleic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid. This indicates that feeding on AMF and TMF does not inhibit hydrogenation by ruminal microorganisms. As in the CFG, the total essential and non-essential amino acids in the loin of the AMFG and TMFG were well balanced. Compared to the CFG, the AMFG and TMFG were high in taurine and carnosine. The results indicate dried Awamori-pressed lees and Tofu lees can be used as a feed ingredient for raising male goats.


Awamori-pressed Lees;Tofu Lees;Growth;Body Size;Meat Production;Male Goat


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