Time-dependent Analysis of Optical Receivers Using Receiver Eigenmodes

  • Seo, Kyung Hee (Department of Electronic Engineering, Kwangwoon University) ;
  • Lee, Jae Seung (Department of Electronic Engineering, Kwangwoon University) ;
  • Willner, Alan E. (Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California)
  • Received : 2013.05.07
  • Accepted : 2013.06.27
  • Published : 2013.08.25


Using receiver eigenmodes, we perform a time-dependent analysis of optical receivers whose optical inputs are corrupted by the amplified spontaneous emission. We use Gaussian receivers for the analysis with Gaussian input pulses. We find the number of contributing eigenmodes increases as the measurement time moves from the pulse center towards the pulse edges at the output of the optical receiver's electrical filter. This behavior is dependent on the bandwidth ratio between the optical and the electrical filters as well as the input pulse's time width.


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)


  1. S. D. Personick, "Statistics of a general class of avalanche detectors with applications to optical communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 3075-3096 (1971).
  2. S. D. Personick, "Receiver design for digital fiber optic communications systems, I," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 843-874 (1973).
  3. T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (KTK Scientific Publishers (KTK), Tokyo, Japan, 1988).
  4. N. A. Olson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1071-1082 (1989).
  5. B. W. Kang and C. H. Kim, "Performance evaluation of bidirectional optical amplifiers for amplified passive optical network based on broadband light source seeded optical sources," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 15, 4-8 (2011).
  6. M. Kac and A. J. F. Siegert, "On the theory of noise in radio receivers with square law detectors," J. Appl. Phys. 18, 383-397 (1947).
  7. R. C. Emerson, "First probability densities for receivers with square law detectors," J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1168-1176 (1953).
  8. J. E. Mazo and J. Salz, "Probability of error for quadratic detectors," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 44, 2165-2186 (1965).
  9. G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, "A novel analytical method for the BER evaluation in optical systems affected by parametric gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 152-154 (2000).
  10. J. S. Lee and C. S. Shim, "Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).
  11. P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, M. M. Strasser, and W. R. Leeb, "Optimum filter bandwidths for optically preamplified NRZ and RZ receivers," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1263-1273 (2001).
  12. R. Holzlohner, V. S. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, and W. L. Kath, "Accurate calculation of eye diagrams and bit error rates in optical transmission systems using linearization," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 389-400 (2002).
  13. E. Forestieri and M. Secondini, "On the error probability evaluation in lightwave systems with optical amplification," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 706-717 (2009).
  14. J. S. Lee and A. E. Willner, "Analysis of Gaussian optical receivers," J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2987-2993 (2013).
  15. S. Y. Kim, K. H. Seo, and J. S. Lee, "Spectral efficiencies of channel-interleaved bidirectional and unidirectional ultradense WDM for metro applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 229-233 (2012).
  16. B. Batsuren, H. H. Kim, C. Y. Eom, J. J. Choi, and J. S. Lee, "Optical VSB filtering of 12.5-GHz spaced 64 ${\times}$ 12.4 Gb/s WDM channels using a pair of Fabry-Perot filters," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17, 63-67 (2013).
  17. D. Marcuse, "Derivation of analytical expressions for the bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1816-1823 (1990).
  18. P. A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1576-1582 (1991).
  19. A. Papoulis, Probabiliry, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 2002), Chapter 7.
  20. G. B. Arfken and H. J. Weber, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 6th ed. (Elsevier Academic, New York, USA, 2005), Chapter 13.

Cited by

  1. Relative Intensity Noise Suppression of Spectrum-Sliced Channels Using Polarization-Independent Optical Modulators vol.18, pp.6, 2014,
  2. Joint Probability Density Functions for Direct-Detection Optical Receivers vol.18, pp.2, 2014,
  3. Optical Communication Using Linear Sums of Optical Receiver Modes: Proof of Concept vol.30, pp.19, 2018,