Associations between dietary patterns and hypertension among Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010)

  • Shin, Ji-Ye (Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Kim, Ji-Myung (Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Hanbuk University) ;
  • Kim, Yuri (Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University)
  • Received : 2012.09.26
  • Accepted : 2013.04.25
  • Published : 2013.06.01


The objective of this study is to identify the dietary patterns associated with the risk of hypertensions among Korean adults using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2010). This study analyzes data from 11,883 subjects who participated in the health and nutrition survey, aging from 20 to 64 years. We performed factor analysis based on the weekly mean intake frequencies of 36 food groups to identify major dietary patterns. We identified three major dietary patterns in both sexes, namely "traditional", "western" and "dairy and carbohydrate" patterns. Participants in the highest quartile of western pattern scores had significantly higher blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels than those in the lowest quartile. Although not statistically significant, a trend (P for trend = 0.0732) toward a positive association between the western dietary pattern and hypertension risk was observed after adjustments for age, sex, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, and energy intake. The dairy and carbohydrate pattern was inversely related with BMI and blood pressures and positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. After adjusting the age, sex, education, income, BMI, smoking, physical activity and energy intake, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern showed inverse associations with hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.55-0.75; P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber, sodium, and antioxidant vitamins were significantly higher in the top quartile for the traditional pattern than in the lowest quartile for the traditional pattern (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber (P for trend < 0.0001), calcium (P for trend < 0.0001), retinol (P for trend = 0.0164), vitamin $B_1$ (P for trend = 0.001), vitamin $B_2$ (P for trend < 0.0001), niacin (P for trend = 0.0025), and vitamin C (P for trend < 0.0001) were significantly increased across quartiles for the dairy and carbohydrate pattern whereas sodium (P for trend < 0.0001) intake was decreased for this pattern. In conclusion, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern may be associated with a reduced risk of hypertension whereas the western pattern may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension among Korean adults.


Supported by : Ewha Womans University


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