Hazardous and Noxious Substances(HNS) Risk Assessment and Accident Prevention Measures on Domestic Marine Transportation

국내 위험·유해물질(HNS) 해상운송사고 위험도 분석 및 사고 저감방안 연구

  • Received : 2013.01.30
  • Accepted : 2013.04.25
  • Published : 2013.04.30


HNS, including crude oil and products, shipments have increased. The risk analysis of HNS has assumed the importance, especially in maritime transportation area. There are various forms and kinds of HNS and the consequences of an accident are serious. In order to provide practical measures for preventing accidents, this study analyses the potential risks of HNS on maritime transportation accidents at domestic sea by using Event Tree Analysis. This study carries out risk assessment with F-N curve and risk matrix focusing on liquid cargo carriers (Oil and Products Tanker, Chemical Tanker, LPG/LNG Tanker, etc.). Explosion and sinking, suffocation indicate high consequence when on collision represent high probability. Improving human errors should be the main factor to mitigate risk on human lives.


HNS;Maritime Transportation;Risk;Accidents Scenario;Mitigation Measures


  1. Arslan, O. and D. E. Ismail(2008), SWOT Analysis for Safer Carriage of Bulk Liquid Chemicals in Tankers, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 154, pp. 901-913.
  2. Boult, M.(2000), Risk Management of LPG Transport Activities in Hong Kong, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 71, pp. 85-100.
  3. Choi, J. H.(2002), A Comparative Study on Risk Management Systems for Hazardous and Noxious Substances at Sea, in Korea and USA, Journal of The Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 15-52.
  4. Cozzani, V., S. Bonvicini, G. Spadoni, and S. Zanelli(2007), Hazmat Transport: A Methodological Framework for the Risk Analysis of Marshalling Yards, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 147, pp. 412-423.
  5. Keum, J. S., W. J. Yang and W. J. Jang(2003), A Study on the System Dynamics Analysis for Human Factors in Ship′s Collision Accidents, Journal of Korean Navigation and Port Research, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 493-498.
  6. Keum, J. S. and W. J. Jang(2006), Evaluation of the Navigational Risk Level in Coastal Waterway using Fuzzy Logic, Journal of The Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 53-59.
  7. Kim, D. J. and S. Y. Kim(2008), A Methodology for Risk Analysis on Ship Accidents at Port Area, Journal of Shipping and Logistics, Vol. 59, pp. 105-121.
  8. Kim, D. J and S. Y. Kwak(2010), Evaluation of Human Factors in Ship Accidents in the Domestic Sea, Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 87-98.
  9. Kim, H. T., S. Na and W. H. Ha(2011), A Case Study of Marine Accident Investigation and Analysis with Focus on Human Error, Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 137-150.
  10. KOMDI(2012), Korea Maritime Dangerous Goods Inspection and Research Institute, Hazardous and Noxious Substance(HNS) Convention, Report, pp. 1-23.
  11. Korea Coast Guard(2004), Preparedness, Response to Major Pollution, Final Report, pp. 1-85.
  12. Korea Coast Guard(2007), HNS Accidents Preparedness and Response, Report, pp. 1-12.
  13. Lee, E. B., J. H. Yun and S. T. Chung(2012), A Study on the Development of the Response Resource Model of Hazardous and Noxious Substances Based on the Risks of Marine Accidents in Korea, Journal of Korean Navigation and Port Research, Vol. 6, No. 10, pp. 857-864.
  14. Portela, C.(2005), Maritime Casualties Analysis as a Tool to Improve Research about Human Factors on Maritime Environment, Journal of Maritime Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 3-18.
  15. Rao, P. G. and K. V. Raghavan(1996), Hazard and Risk Potential of Chemical Handling at Ports, Journal of Loss Prevention Process Industries, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 199-204.
  16. Reason, J.(1990), Human Error, Cambridge University Press
  17. Ronza, A., S. Carol, V. Espejo, J. A. Vilchez, and J. Arnaldos(2006), A Quantitative Risk Analysis Approach to Port Hydrocarbon Logistics, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. A128, pp. 10-12.
  18. Ronza, A., S. Felez, R. M. Darbra, S. Carol, J. A. Vilchezand and J. Casal(2003), Predicting the Frequency of Accidents in Port Areas by Developing Event Trees from Historical Analysis, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Vol. 16, pp. 551-560.
  19. Trucco, P., E. Cagno, F. Ruggeri and O. Grande(2008), A Bayesian Belief Network Modelling of Organisational Factors in Risk Analysis: A Case Study in Maritime Transportation, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, Vol. 93, pp. 823-834.
  20. U. S. Office of the Secretary of Transportation(2008), Departmental Guidance Memorandum, Report, pp. 1-8.
  21. Yang, Y. L., W. H. Shyu, C. H. Lin and S. F. Hsu(2005), Risk Management of International Transportation of Integrated Circuit Products, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 6, pp. 3386-3400.
  22. Yang W. J., S. H. Jun and J. S. Keum(2001), Risk Assessment of the Ship′s Collision using Formal Safety Assessment Methodology I, Journal of The Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 61-74.

Cited by

  1. Comparison of Response Systems and Education Courses against HNS Spill Incidents between Land and Sea in Korea vol.21, pp.6, 2015,
  2. A Study on Prioritization of HNS Management in Korean Waters vol.21, pp.6, 2015,
  3. Risk Analysis of Container Ship Accidents and Risk Mitigation Measures vol.22, pp.3, 2016,
  4. A Study on the Development of HNS Database for Response System of Marine Spill Accident in Korea vol.22, pp.1, 2016,
  5. A Study of Risk Analysis for Human Casualty of Social Disasters based on F-N Curve vol.18, pp.2, 2018,
  6. Top Priority Accident Types in Disaster and Safety Budgets based Risk Analysis using Statistical Data vol.18, pp.4, 2018,
  7. A Study on the Safety Management of Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) in Port vol.18, pp.4, 2018,


Supported by : 한국연구재단