DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Calculation of Derived Investigation Levels for Uranium Intake

우라늄 섭취의 유도조사준위 산출

  • 이나래 (과학기술연합대학원대학교) ;
  • 한승재 (과학기술연합대학원대학교) ;
  • 조건우 (과학기술연합대학원대학교) ;
  • 정규환 (한국원자력안전기술원) ;
  • 이동명 (과학기술연합대학원대학교)
  • Received : 2013.03.28
  • Accepted : 2013.05.24
  • Published : 2013.06.30

Abstract

Derived Investigation levels(DILs) were calculated to protect the workers from the effects of both radiological hazard and chemical toxicity by uranium intake. Investigation Levels(ILs) of committed effective dose of 2 mSv $y^{-1}-6$ mSv $y^{-1}$ and uranium concentration of 0.3 ${\mu}g$ $g^{-1}$ in kidney, based on Korean Nuclaer Safety Act, Korean Occupational Safety and Health Act and current scientific studies of uranium intake were assumed. DILs of radiological hazard and chemical toxicity were then calculated based on the concentration of uranium in air of workplace, the lung monitoring and urine analysis, respectively. As a result, in case of the nuclear fuel fabrication plant where 3.5% enriched uranium is handled, derived investigation level(DIL) for the control of the concentration of uranium in the air of workplace assumed with 15-min acute inhalation was 0.6 mg $m^{-3}$ for all types of uranium. DILs for the control of the average concentration of uranium in air of workplace, assuming an 8-hour workday, were 15.21 ${\mu}g$ $m^{-3}$ of Type F uranium, 0.41-1.23 Bq $m^{-3}$ and 0.13-0.39 Bq $m^{-3}$ for Type M and Type S uranium, respectively. DILs for the lung monitoring assumed with a period of 6-month interval were 0.37-1.11 Bq and 0.39-1.17 Bq in acute and chronic inhalation for Type M, respectively and 0.30- 0.91 Bq and 0.19-0.57 Bq in acute and chronic inhalation for Type S, respectively. Since a detection limit of typical germanium detector for the measurement of 235U activity is 4 Bq, DILs calculated for the lung monitoring were not appropriate. DILs for urine analysis, for which an interval was assumed to be 1 month, were 14.57 ${\mu}g$ $L^{-1}$ based on chemical toxicity after acute inhalation. In addition, acute and chronic inhalation of Type M were calculated 2.85-8.58 ${\mu}g$ $L^{-1}$ and 1.09-3.27 ${\mu}g$ $L^{-1}$ based on the radiological hazard, respectively.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 원자력안전위원회

References

  1. World Health Organization. Depleted uranium. sources, exposure and health effects. Department of Protection of the Human Environment, WHO/ SDE/PHE/01.1. WHO Geneva. 2001.
  2. 원자력안전위원회. 원자력안전법 시행령. 2013.
  3. 원자력안전위원회. 원자력안전법 위원회 고시. 2012.
  4. 고용노동부. 화학물질 및 물리적 인자의 노출기준. 고용노동부 고시. 2012.
  5. U.S. National Research Council. Review of toxicologic and radiologic risks to military personnel from exposure to depleted uranium during and after combat. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC. 2008.
  6. ISO. Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to 5375 a risk of internal contamination with radioactive material. ISO 205553: 2006. 5376 International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland. 2006.
  7. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Acceptable concepts, models, equations and assumptions for a bioassay program. Regu Guide 8.9. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; 1993a.
  8. 한국원자력안전기술원. 방사선 안전규제기술 개발. KINS/GR-299. 2005.
  9. Stradling GN. Hodgson A. Ansoborlo E. Berard P. Etherington G. Fell T. Rance E. Le Guen B. Industrial uranium compounds: Exposure limits, assessment of intake and toxicity after inhalation. NRPB Report W22. Chilton, UK. 2002.
  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Controlling intake of uranium in the workplace: Applications of biokinetic modeling and occupational monitoring data. ORNL/TM-2012/14.2012.
  11. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Individual monitoring for internal exposure of workers replaced of ICRP publication 54. ICRP publication 78. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1997.
  12. Department of Energy. Guide of good practies for occupational radiological protection in uranium facilities. DOE-STD-1136-2009. U.S Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585. 2009.
  13. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Standards for protection against radiation, Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office; Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20, Appendix B. 1991
  14. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Supproting guidance document interpretation of bioassay data, ICRP Draft Guidance. 2006.
  15. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection. ICRP Publication 66. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1994.
  16. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Report of the task group on reference man. ICRP Publication 23, Oxford: Pergamon Press.1975.
  17. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by workers. ICRP Publication 68. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1994.
  18. International Commission on Radiological Protection. Age-dependent doses to members of the public from intake of radionuclides, part 3, ICRP Publication 69. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1995.
  19. James A, Birchall A, Marsh J, Matthew P. User manual for IMBA professional plus. HPA and ACJ & Accosociates. Inc. 2005.
  20. Kramer G. H, Hauck B. M, Allen S. A, Dantas B. M, Dantas A. L, Azeredo A, Lung countng: summing techniques to reduce the MDA. Health Phys. 2003;85:220-227. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004032-200308000-00012
  21. 한국원자력연구원. 방사선량 측정 및 평가기술 개발. KAERI/RR-2801/2006. 2007.
  22. Alexander CM. Depleted uranium properties, uses and health consequences. CRC Press. 2007.