DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Assessment of Cervical Cancer Risk in Women between 15 and 49 Years of Age: Case of Izmir

  • Sogukpınar, Neriman (Department of Midwifery, Ege University Izmir Ataturk School of Health) ;
  • Saydam, Birsen Karaca (Department of Midwifery, Ege University Izmir Ataturk School of Health) ;
  • Can, Hafize Ozturk (Department of Midwifery, Ege University Izmir Ataturk School of Health) ;
  • Hadımli, Aytul (Department of Midwifery, Ege University Izmir Ataturk School of Health) ;
  • Bozkurt, Ozlem Demirel (Department of Nursing, Ege University Izmir Ataturk School of Health) ;
  • Yucel, Ummahan (Department of Midwifery, Ege University Izmir Ataturk School of Health) ;
  • Kocak, Yeliz Cakir (Department of Midwifery, Ege University Izmir Ataturk School of Health) ;
  • Akmese, Zehra Baykal (Department of Midwifery, Ege University Izmir Ataturk School of Health) ;
  • Demir, Dogan (Municipality of Bornova) ;
  • Ceber, Esin (Department of Midwifery, Ege University Izmir Ataturk School of Health) ;
  • Ozenturk, Gulsun (Department of Midwifery, Ege University Izmir Ataturk School of Health)
  • Published : 2013.03.30

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for cervical cancer for women in Izmir. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive field covered a population of 4319 women of reproductive age (15-49) (household registration in the Mukhtar's office-2007). A total of 1,637 women were included in the sample given a four-part questionnaire through face-to-face interview by visiting the women in their homes in order to determine socio-demographic factors, obstetric history, genital hygiene and the use of family planning methods. In addition, during the data collection process, the women were given group training in order to raise awareness of cervical cancer. The number and percentage distributions of the data were calculated. Results: While the average age of the women was $31.9{\pm}9.77$ (Min: 15.00-Max: 49.00), education level of 43.4% of them was elementary school only. It was determined that 70.3% of the women experienced at least one pregnancy, 71.0% had vaginal delivery and 75.9% used a contraceptive method. In the study it was determined that among the cervical cancer related risks vaginal delivery, vaginal lavage and having three or more pregnancies had the highest rates, while having sexual intercourse before 16 years of age and having more than one sexual partner constituted lower rates. The rate of the women who stated not having a smear in the last three years was 82.4%. Conclusions: Considering the case in terms of having Pap smear test, women's awareness on the risk factors and early diagnosis of cervical cancer was found to be low. Due to this reason, awareness of women has to be raised through education.

References

  1. Acikgoz A, Cehreli R, Ellidokuz H (2011). Women's knowledge and attitude about cancer and the behaviour for early diagnosis procedures. Dokuz Eylul University Med Faculty J, 25, 145-54.
  2. American Cancer Society (2012). Cervical cancer causes, risk factors and prevention topics, http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CervicalCancer/DetailedGuide/cervical-cancer-risk-factors, Date of Access: Oct, 22 2012.
  3. Ayhan A, Durukan T, Gunalp S, et al (2008). Primary Gynaecological Diseases and Birth Information, 2nd Edition, Ankara, Gunes Tip Bookstore, 2.
  4. Bayo S, Bosch FX, Sanjosé S, et al (2002). Risk factors of invasive cervical cancer in Mali. Int J Epidemiol, 31, 202-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/31.1.202
  5. Brinton LA, Reeves WC, Brenes MM, et al (1989). Parity as a risk factor for cervical cancer. Am J Epidemiol, 130, 486-96.
  6. Buga GA (1998). Cervical cancer awareness and risk factors among female university students. East Afr Med, 75, 411-6.
  7. Castellsague X, Diaz M, Vaccarella S, et al (2011). Intrauterine device use, cervical infection with human papillomavirus, and risk of cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of 26 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncol, 12, 1023-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(11)70223-6
  8. Cottrell BH (2003). Vaginal douching. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs, 32, 12-8. https://doi.org/10.1177/0884217502239796
  9. Curtis KM, Marchbanks PA, Peterson HB (2007). Neoplasia with use of intrauterine devices. Contraception, 75, 60-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2007.01.002
  10. Erbil N, Alisarli A, Terzi HC,Ozdemir K, Kus Y (2012). Vaginal douching practices among Turkish Married Women. Gynecol Obstet Inves, 73, 152-7. https://doi.org/10.1159/000332372
  11. Ergocmen BA, Yigit E, Tunckanat FH (2009). Family Planning, Chapter 5. 2008 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey TDHS-2008. Ankara. Turkey, 75-96.
  12. Eryurt M, Turkyilmaz AS, Koc I (2009). Household Population and Housing Characteristics. Chapter 2. 2008 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey TDHS-2008, Ankara. Turkey. 57. 33
  13. Gupta A, Kumar A, Stewart DE (2002). Cervical cancer screening among South Asian women in Canada: the role of education and acculturation. Health Care Women Int, 23, 123-34. https://doi.org/10.1080/073993302753429004
  14. Gungor Y, Gungor L, Acik Y, Oguzoncul F (2001). Pap smear scanning of the married and non-pregnant nurses, midwives and female health technicians who working in Elazig State Hospital. Firat University Medical J Health, 15, 471-6.
  15. Hacialioglu N, Nazik E, Kilic M (2009). A descriptive study of douching practices in Turkish Women. Int J Nurs Pract, 15, 57-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-172X.2009.01735.x
  16. Hadimli A, Can HO, Sogukpinar N, et al (2012). Do women perform vaginal lavage for genital hygiene purposes? E-J New World Sciences Academy, 7, 16-27.
  17. Hoque M, Hoque E, Kader SB (2008). Evaluation of cervical cancer screening program at a rural community of South Africa. East Afr J Public Health, 5, 111-6.
  18. Idestrom M, Milsom I, Ellstrom AA (2002). Knowledge and attitudes about the pap-smear screening program: a population-based study of women aged 20-59 years. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 81, 962-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/j.1600-0412.2002.811011.x
  19. Izmir Cancer Registry (KIDEM) (2003). Izmir Cancer Data. Most common types of cancer - by types (total data). http://ato.org.tr/ konuk/kidem/Tdoc3.htm##d. Date of Access: March, 14 2006.
  20. Juneja A, Sehgal A, Mitra AB, Pandey A (2003). A survey on risk factors with cervical cancer. Indian J Cancer, 40, 15-22.
  21. Kanbur A, Canturk C (2011). Cervical cancer prevention, early diagnosis-screening methods and midwives / nurses role. Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sci Nur J, 18, 61-72.
  22. Karaahmet O (2008). High oncogenic risk HPV DNA test in ACUS and LGSIL and colposcopic biopsi results. Speciality Thesis, T.R. SB. Goztepe Education and Research Hospital, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Istanbul.
  23. Kelly AW, Fores CM, Wollan PC, et al (1996). A program to increase breast and cervical cancer screening for cambodian women in a Midwestern community. Mayo Clin Proc, 71, 437-44. https://doi.org/10.4065/71.5.437
  24. Koc I, Cagatay P, Adali T (2009). Fertility. Chapter 4. 2008. Turkey Demographic and Health Survey TDHS-2008. Ankara. Turkey, 97, 59-74.
  25. Lassise DL, Savitz DA, Hamman RF, et al (1991). Invasive cervical cancer and intrauterine device use. Int J Epidemiol, 20, 865-70. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/20.4.865
  26. Lazcano-Ponce E, Palacio-Mejia LS, Allen-Leigh B, et al (2008). Decreasing cervical cancer mortality in Mexico: effect of Papanicolaou coverage, birthrate, and the importance of diagnostic validity of cytology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 17, 2808-17. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-2659
  27. Lee MC (2000). Knowledge. barriers. and motivators related to cervical cancer screening among korean american women. Cancer Nursing, 23, 168-75. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002820-200006000-00003
  28. Louie KS, Sanjose SD, Diaz M, et al (2009). Early age at first sexual intercourse and early pregnancy are risk factors for cervical cancer in developing countries. Br J Cancer, 100, 1191-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6604974
  29. Mishra SI, Luce PH, Baquet CR (2009). Increasing pap smear utilization among samoan women: results from a community based participatory randomized trial. J Health Care Poor Underserved, 20, 85-101. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.0.0160
  30. Mulcahy N (2011). Intrauterine devices lower cervical cancer risk. Medscape Education. Medscape, LLC http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/749724, Date of Access: Oct, 22 2012.
  31. Muñoz N, Franceschi S, Bosetti C, et al (2002). Role of parity and human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: the IARC multicentric case-control study. Lancet , 359, 1093-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08151-5
  32. NHS Cervical Screening Programme (2009). Cervical cancer-incidence, mortality and risk factors. http://www.cancerscreening.nhs.uk/cervical/cervical-cancer.html, Date of Access: Jun, 12 2012.
  33. Pearlman DN, Clark MA, Rakowski W, Ehrich B (1999). Screening for breast and cervical cancers: The importance of knowledge and perceived cancer survivability. Health, 28, 93-112.
  34. Plummer M, Peto J, Franceschi S (2012). Time since first sexual intercourse and the risk of cervical cancer. Int J Cancer, 130, 2638-44. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.26250
  35. Public Health Agency of Canada (2012). http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cd-mc/cancer/cervical_cancer-cancer_du_col_uteruseng.php, Date of Access: August, 10 2012.
  36. Reiter PL, Katz ML, Ferketich AK, et al (2009). Measuring cervical cancer risk:developmet and validation of the care risky sexual behavior index. Cancer Causes and Control, 20, 1865-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-009-9380-5
  37. TR Ministry of Health Department of Cancer Fighting (2002). Cancer fighting policy and cancer data (1995-1999). Ankara, 618, 145.
  38. TR Ministry of Health (2006). Population Based Cancer Registry Centers Data Repository: Eight Cities. 2004-2006 Assessment, http://www.kanser.gov.tr/folders/file/8iL-2006-SON.pdf, Date of Access: Jun, 12 2012.
  39. Taskin L (2012). Birth and Women's Health Nursing. Sistem Ofset. Ankara.
  40. Thomas SM, Fick AC (1994). Women's health: early detection and screening practices for breast and cervical cancer. J Lousiana State Medical Society, 146, 152-8.
  41. Tuncer M (2009). National Cancer Control Programme, T.R. Ministry of Health Department of Cancer Fighting, Ankara, pp 24.
  42. Tuncer M, Ozgul M (2010). Turkey In: Asian Pasific Organization for Cancer Prevention Cancer Report 2010, eds. Murat Tuncer, Published by "New Hope in Health" foundation, MN Publishing Company, 414-8.
  43. Turkish Statistical Institution (TulK) (2011). Address Based Population Registry System (ADNKS), Education, Culture, Sports Database. http://tuikapp.tuik.gov.tr/adnksdagitapp/adnks.zul?kod=2, Date of Access: May, 10 2012.
  44. Twinn S, Shiu AT, Holroyd E (2002). Women's knowledge about cervical cancer and cervical screening practice: a pilot study of hong kong chinese women. Cancer Nur, 25, 377-84. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002820-200210000-00007
  45. World Health Organization (WHO) (2002). Cervical cancer screening in developing countries. Report of a WHO Consultation Geneva. 3-16.
  46. Yucel U, ceber E, Ozenturk G (2009). Efficacy of a training course given by midwives concerning cervical cancer risk factors and prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 437-42.

Cited by

  1. Cervical Cytological Screening Results of 8,495 Cases in Turkey - Common Inflammation but Infrequent Epithelial Cell Abnormalities? vol.15, pp.13, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5127
  2. Are Primary Health Care Workers Aware of Cervical Cancer Risk? vol.15, pp.16, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.16.6669
  3. Cytotoxicity of Trichoderma spp. Cultural Filtrate Against Human Cervical and Breast Cancer Cell Lines vol.15, pp.17, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.17.7229
  4. Awareness and Practices Regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer among Turkish Women in Gazientep vol.15, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.3.1093
  5. Level of Awareness of Cervical and Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Safe Practices among College Teachers of Different States in India: Do Awareness Programmes Have an Impact on Adoption of Safe Practices? vol.16, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.3.927
  6. Breast and Cervical Cancer Knowledge and Awareness among University Students vol.16, pp.5, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.5.1719
  7. Socio-Demographic, Reproductive and Clinical Profile of Women Diagnosed with Advanced Cervical Cancer in a Tertiary Care Institute of Delhi vol.67, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13224-016-0907-x
  8. Strategies for reducing risk of cervical cancer in adolescents in developing countries – A view point vol.7, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.injms.2015.10.003