Incidence and Clinicopathologic Features of Primary Lung Cancer: A North-Eastern Anatolia Region Study in Turkey (2006-2012)

  • Demirci, Elif (Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University) ;
  • Daloglu, Ferah (Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University) ;
  • Gundogdu, Cemal (Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University) ;
  • Calik, Muhammet (Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University) ;
  • Sipal, Sare (Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University) ;
  • Akgun, Metin (Department of Chest Disease, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University)
  • 발행 : 2013.03.30


Background: Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer among men and second highest among women overall, including in Turkey. Cigarette smoking is the most important etiologic factor for the development of cancer in both men and women. Objective: To determine the lung cancer incidence in Northeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey with a focus on clinical properties, cancer subtypes, the relationships of tumors with cigarette smoking and radiological properties of the lesions. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study design, 566 lung cancer cases diagnosed at the Pathology Department of Ataturk University in Erzurum over the last seven years extending from January 2006 to June 2012 were investigated. The results were compared with statistical analyses. Results: The most common histopathological subtype of primary bronchogenic carcinoma in our study was found to be the squamous cell carcinoma, 46.1% (261 out of 566), and the second was small cell lung carcinoma 15.7% (89 out of 566). Based on our data, an overall male predominance was noted with a male/female ratio of 6.1/1. While 296 (52.2%) of the patients were found to be smokers at the time of diagnosis, 125 (22.0%) were nonsmokers and 145 (25.6%) were ex-smokers. Smoking status was found to have a strong correlation with primary lung cancer (p<0.05), and there were significant differences between males and females (p<0.001). Conclusion: Although relative prominence of subtypes of lung cancers differ between Turkish and other populations, lung cancer overall remains as an important health problem in Turkey. Our findings stress the critical need for effective cancer prevention programs such as anti-smoking campaigns.


  1. Santos-Martines MJ, Curull V, Blanco ML et al (2005). Lung cancer at a universiy hospital: epidemiological and histological characteristics of a recent and a historical series. Arch Bronconeumol, 41, 307-12.
  2. Simonato L, Agudo A, Ahrens W, et al (2001). Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in Europe: an update of risk estimates and an assessment of inter-country heterogeneity. Int J Cancer, 91, 876-87.<::AID-IJC1139>3.0.CO;2-7
  3. Tacha D, Yu C, Bremer R, Oi W, Haas T (2012). A 6-antibody panel for the classification of lung adenocarcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol, 20, 201-7.
  4. Thun MJ, Lally CA, Flannery JT et al (1997). Cigarette smoking and changes in the hispathology of lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst, 89, 1580-6.
  5. Travis WD, Brambilla E, Noguchi M, et al (2011). International association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma. J Thorac Oncol, 6, 244-85.
  6. Travis WD, Travis LB, Devesa SS (1995). Lung cancer. Cancer, 75, 191-202.<191::AID-CNCR2820751307>3.0.CO;2-Y
  7. Turner B, Cagle P, Sainz I, et al (2012). Napsin A, a new marker for lung adenocarcinoma, is complementary and more sensitive and pecific than thyroid transcription factor 1 in the differential diagnosis of primary pulmonary carcinoma:evaluation of 1674 cases by tissue microarray. Arch Pathol Lab Med, 136, 163-71.
  8. WHO (1997). Tobacco or health: a global status report. Geneva, Switzerland: world health organization.
  9. Yurdakul AS, calisir HC, Demirag F, Taci N, ogretensoy (2002). Akciger kanserinin histolojik tiplerinin dagilimi; 2216 olgunun analizi. Toraks Dergisi, 1, 59-65.
  10. Bozkurt B, Selcuk ZT, Firat P, Kalyoncu AF, Artvinli M (2004). 1972-2002 doneminde Hacettepe universitesi Tip Fakultesi Hastanesi'nde akciger kanseri tanisi konulan hastalarin histolojik ve epidemiyolojik degerlendirmesi. Toraks Dergisi, 5, 148-53.
  11. Bryant A, Cerfolio RJ (2007). Differences in epidemiology, histology, and survival between cigarette smokers and never-smokers who develop non-small cell lung cancer. Chest, 132, 185-92.
  12. Charloux A, Quoix E, Wolkove N, et al (1997). The increasing incidence of lung adenocarcinoma: reality or artefact? A review of the epidemiology of lung adenocarcinoma. Int J Epidemiol, 26, 14-23.
  13. Cox JD, Yesner RA (1979). Adenocarcinoma of the lung: recent results from the veterans administration lung group. Am Rev Respir Dis, 120, 1025-9.
  14. De Geer A, Eriksson J, Finnern HW (2013). A cross- country review of data collected on non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in cancer registeries, databases, retrospective and non-randomized prospective studies. J Med Economics, 16, 134-49.
  15. Dey A, Biswas D, Saha SK, Kundu S, Sengupa A (2012). Comparison study of clinicoradiological profile of primary lung cancer cases: An Eastern India experience. Indian J Cancer, 49, 89-95.
  16. Gunbatar H, Sertogullarindan B, ozbay B, Sunnetcioglu A, Ekin S (2012). Akciger kanserli olgularin degerlendirilmesi; 3 yillik analiz. Van Tip Dergisi, 19, 13-20.
  17. Hsu CL, Chen KY, Shih JY, et al (2012). Advanced non-small lung cancer in patients aged 45 years or younger: outcomes and prognostic factors. BMC Cancer, 12, 241.
  18. İtil O (2000). Akciger kanserlerinin epidemiyolojisi ve etyolojisi In: 'Akciger kanserleri: Tani ve tedavi', Ed Haydaroglu A. EgeUniversitesi Basimevi, Izmir pp 15-34.
  19. Kanematsu T, Hanibuchi M, Tomimoto H, et al (2010). Epidemiological and clinical features of lung cancer patients from 1999 to 2009 in Tokushima Prefecture of Japan. J Med Investigation, 57, 327-33.
  20. Missaoui1N, Hmissal S, Landolsi1 H et al (2011). Lung Cancer in Central Tunisia: Epidemiology and Clinicopathological Features. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 2305-9.
  21. Navani N, Brown J M, Nankivell M, et al (2012). Suitability of EBUS- TBNA specimens for subtyping and genotyping of NSCLC: a multi-center study of 774 patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 185, 1316-22.
  22. Parkin DM, Muir CS (1992). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. IARC Scientific Publication No.120. Lyon: IARC. pp 45-173.
  23. Salim EI, Jazieh AR, Moore MA (2011). Lung cancer incidence in the Arab League countries: risk factors and control. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 17-34.
  24. Arinc S, Ertugrul M, Salturk C, et al (2007). Primer akciger kanserinde bronkoskopi bulgularinin sigara aliskanligi ile iliskisi. Toraks Dergisi, 8, 6-9.
  25. Atici AG, Erkan L, Findik S, Uzun O, Kandemir B (2004). Kucuk hucreli disi akciger kanserli hastalarin klinik ozellikleri. Tuberkuloz ve Toraks Dergisi, 52, 150-8.
  26. Alpar S, Ucar N, Agackiran Y, et al (2004). Akciger kanserlerinin histopatolojik ve morfolojik ozellikleri ile bronsiyal yerlesimleri arasindaki iliskinin degerlendirilmesi. Solunum Hastaliklari, 15, 127-31
  27. Araz O, Akgun M, Gorguner M (2010). Lung Cancer Incidence in Erzurum City. EAJM, 42, 111-5

피인용 문헌

  1. Does Sunlight Exposure Improve Survival in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer? vol.14, pp.11, 2013,
  2. Staging with PET-CT in Patients with Locally Advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer is Superior to Conventional Staging Methods in Terms of Survival vol.14, pp.6, 2013,
  3. Overview of Cancer Registration Research in the Asian Pacific from 2008-2013 vol.14, pp.8, 2013,
  4. Lung Cancer in Women: A Single Institution Experience with 50 Patients vol.15, pp.1, 2014,
  5. Geographic Distribution and Epidemiology of Lung Cancer During 2011 in Zhejiang Province of China vol.15, pp.13, 2014,
  6. Phase II Study on Dose Escalating Schedule of Paclitaxel Concurrent with Radiotherapy in Treating Patients with Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer vol.15, pp.4, 2014,
  7. Epidemiological and Clinicopathological Characteristics of Lung Cancer in a Teaching Hospital in Iran vol.15, pp.6, 2014,
  8. Histologic Distribution of Pulmonary Tumors in Lebanon: A 5-Year Single Institution Experience vol.16, pp.14, 2015,
  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Concurrent Core Needle Biopsy in Evaluation of Intrathoracic Lesions: a Retrospective Comparative Study vol.16, pp.16, 2015,
  10. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Correlation between PARP-1 Val762Ala polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population vol.36, pp.1, 2015,
  11. Profil épidémiologie et pathologique du cancer du poumon dans l’Ouest-algérien : à propos de 772 cas vol.7, pp.1, 2015,
  12. Downregulation of selenium-binding protein 1 is associated with poor prognosis in lung squamous cell carcinoma vol.14, pp.1, 2016,
  13. Is it better to include necrosis in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements? The necrosis/wall ADC ratio to differentiate malignant and benign necrotic lung lesions: Preliminary results vol.46, pp.4, 2017,