- Volume 14 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
Smoking and Associated Factors Among the Population Aged 40-64 in Shahroud, Iran
- Hamrah, Mohammad Shoaib ;
- Harun-Or-Rashid, Md. ;
- Hirosawa, Tomoya ;
- Sakamoto, Junichi ;
- Hashemi, Hassan ;
- Emamian, Mohammad Hassan ;
- Shariati, Mohammad ;
- Fotouhi, Akbar
- Published : 2013.03.30
Background: Smoking is known as a major risk factor for different types of cancer, as well as cardiovascular disease. Its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of smoking and its associated factors among the population aged 40-64 years in the city of Shahroud which is a representative urban population in Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study with stratified random cluster sampling was conducted in 2009 as the first phase of Shahroud Eye Cohort Study. Of 6,311 people, 5,190 participated (82.2%). Information about smoking habit was obtained by face-to-face interview. Results: The overall prevalence of current tobacco smoking was 11.3% (95%CI: 10.5-12.3). It was significantly higher among males than females (25.7% and 0.71%, P<0.001). The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 10.8% and 1.75% were past smokers. The smoking rate of water-pipe was 0.67%. Unemployed people smoked more than employed (OR=2.66, 95%CI: 1.38-5.14). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking is low in Shahroud compared with other parts of Iran and other countries. Age, sex, job and marital status were associated with smoking. The low smoking rate among women may be attributed to cultural and social reasons.
Prevalence;smoking;tobacco;urban Iran;health survey
- Fotouhi A, Khabazkhoob M, Hashemi H, Mohammad K (2009). The prevalence of cigarette smoking in residents of Tehran. Arch Iran Med, 12, 358-64.
- Fotouhi A, Hashemi H, Shariati M, et al (2013). Cohort Profile:shahroud eye cohort study. Int J Epidemiol, [Epub ahead of print].
- GilbertAR, Pinget C, Bovet P, et al (2004). The cost effectiveness of pharmacological smoking cessation therapies in developing countries: a case study in the Seychelles. Tob Control, 13, 190-5. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2003.004630
- Hosseinpoor AR, Parker LA, Tursan d'Espaignet E, Chatterji S (2011). Social determinants of smoking in low- and middleincome countries: results from the World Health Survey. PloS one, 6, 20331. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020331
- Jarvis M, Wardle J (2005). Social patterning of individual health behaviours: the case of cigarette smoking. In 'Social Determinants of Health', eds, Marmot M, Wilkinson R. Oxford University Press, 2nd ed. London, UK, 240-55.
- Khattab A, Javaid A, Iraqi G, et al (2012). Smoking habits in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study. Respir Med, 106, 16-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0954-6111(12)70011-2
- Lundqvist G, Weinehall L, Öhman A (2007). Attitudes and barriers towards smoking cessation among middle aged and elderly women: a qualitative study in family practice. Internet J Hlth, 5, 1-10.
- Meysamie A, Ghaletaki R, Haghazali M, et al (2010). Pattern of tobacco use among the Iranian adult population: results of the national Survey of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases (SuRFNCD-2007). Tob Control, 19, 125-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2009.030759
- Ezzati M, Henley SJ, Lopez AD, Thun MJ (2005). Role of smoking in global and regional cancer epidemiology: current patterns and data needs. Int J Cancer, 116, 963-71. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.21100
- Finch K, Novotny TE, Ma S, et al (2010). Smoking knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among rural-to-urban migrant women in Beijing, China. Asia Pac J Public Hlth, 22, 342-53. https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539509335034
- Al Turki KA, Al Baghli NA, Al Ghamdi AJ, et al (2010). Prevalence of current smoking in eastern province, Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J, 16, 671-6.
- Al Riyami AA, Afifi M (2004). Smoking in Oman: prevalence and characteristics of smokers. East Mediterr Hlth J, 10, 600-9.
- Berry JD, Dyer A, Cai X, et al. (2012). Lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med, 366, 321-9. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1012848
- Center for Disease Control. Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor InfoBase. Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Available at: http://www.ncdinfobase.ir/english/. Accessed 15 January 2012.
- De Vogli R, Santinello, M (2005). Unemployment and smoking:does psychosocial stress matter? Tob Control, 14, 389-95. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2004.010611
- Eriksen M, Mackay J, Ross H (2012). The Tobacco Atlas. 4th Ed. American Cancer Society. Brighton, UK.
- Mohammad K, Noorbala A, Majdzadeh SR, Karimloo M (2001). Trend of smoking prevalence in Iran from 1991 through 1999 based on two national health surveys. Hakim Medical J, 3, 290-4.
- Nasir K, Rehan N (2001). Epidemiology of cigarette smoking in Pakistan. Addiction, 96, 1847-54. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2001.9612184714.x
- Norum KR (2005). World Health Organization's Global Strategy on diet, physical activity and health: the process behind the scenes. Scandinavian J Nutrition, 49, 83-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/11026480510037147
- Rani M, Bonu S, Jha P, Nguyen SN, Jamjoum L (2003). Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey. Tob Control, 12, 4. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.12.4.e4
- Sarraf-Zadegan N, Boshtam M, Shahrokhi S, et al (2004). Tobacco use among Iranian men, women and adolescents. Eur J Public HIth,14, 76-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/14.1.76
- Thun MJ, Carter BD, Feskanich D, et al (2013). 50-year trends in smoking-related mortality in the United States. N Engl J Med, 368, 351-64. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa1211127
- World Health Organization (2012). WHO NCD Surveillance strategy. WHO. Geneva. Available at: http://www.who.int/ncd_surveillance/strategy/en/index.html. Accessed 15 January 2012.
- World Health Organization (2011). Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. WHO. Geneva.
- World Health Organization (2011b). Tobacco Free Initiative (TFI), Tobacco control country profiles. WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/policy/country_profile/enlindex.html. Accessed 15 January 2012.
- Youssef RM, Abou-Khatwa SA, Fouad HM (2002). Prevalence of smoking and age of initiation in Alexandria, Egypt. East Mediterr Health J, 8, 626-37.
- The Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors amongst Adults in the Dikgale Health Demographic and Surveillance System (HDSS) Site, Limpopo Province of South Africa vol.11, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147926
- Current tobacco use and its associated factors among adults in a country with comprehensive ban on tobacco: findings from the nationally representative STEPS survey, Bhutan, 2014 vol.14, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-016-0098-9
- Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking and Associated Factors among Male Citizens in Tehran, Iran vol.17, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.3.1473
- The prevalence and trends of waterpipe tobacco smoking: A systematic review vol.13, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192191
- Transition in tobacco use stages and its related factors in a longitudinal study vol.23, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12199-018-0728-x