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Clinical Outcomes of Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus: A Retrospective Analysis of 142 Cases

  • Zhang, Bai-Hua ;
  • Cheng, Gui-Yu ;
  • Xue, Qi ;
  • Gao, Shu-Geng ;
  • Sun, Ke-Lin ;
  • Wang, Yong-Gang ;
  • Mu, Ju-Wei ;
  • He, Jie
  • Published : 2013.03.30

Abstract

Background: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (BSCCE) is a rare and distinctive tumor with no standard treatment. This study aimed to explore treatment in relation to prognosis of the disease. Methods: A total of 142 patients with BSCCE that underwent treatment in our hospital from March 1999 to July 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received surgery, 42 postoperative radiotherapy and 28 patients chemotherapy. Results: There were 26 patients included in stage I, 60 in stage II, 53 in stage III and 3 in stage IV. The clinical symptoms and macroscopic performances of BSCCE did not differ from those of typical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Among 118 patients receiving endoscopic biopsy, only 12 were diagnosed with BSCCE. The median survival time (MST) of the entire group was 32 months, with 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) of 81.4%, 46.8% and 31.0%, respectively. The 5-year OS of stage I and II patients was significantly longer than that of stages III/IV, at 60.3%, 36.1% and 10.9%, respectively (p<0.001, p=0.001). The MST and 5-year OS were 59.0 months and 47.4% in patients with tumors located in the lower thoracic esophagus, and 27.0 months and 18.1% in those with lesions in the upper/middle esophagus (p=0.002). However, the survival was not significantly improved in patients undegoing adjunctive therapy. Multivariate analysis showed TNM stage and tumor location to be independent prognostic factors. Furthermore, distant metastasis was the most frequent failure pattern, with a median recurrence time of 10 months. Conclusion: BSCCE is an aggressive disease with rapid progression and a propensity for distant metastasis. It is difficult to make a definitive diagnosis via preoperative biopsy. Multidisciplinary therapy including radical esophagectomy with extended lymphadenectomy should be recommended, while the effectiveness of radiochemotherapy requires further validation for BSCCE.

Keywords

Esophageal neoplasm;basaloid squamous cell carcinoma;surgery;multidisciplinary therapy;prognosis

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