Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Particulate Carcinogens and Mutagens in Bangkok, Thailand

  • Pongpiachan, Siwatt (NIDA Center for Research and Development of Disaster Prevention and Management, School of Social and Environmental Development, National Institute of Development Administration) ;
  • Choochuay, C. (NIDA Center for Research and Development of Disaster Prevention and Management, School of Social and Environmental Development, National Institute of Development Administration) ;
  • Hattayanone, M. (Faculty of Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla University) ;
  • Kositanont, C. (Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Chulalongkorn University)
  • Published : 2013.03.30


To investigate the level of genotoxicity over Bangkok atmosphere, $PM_{10}$ samples were collected at the Klongchan Housing Authority (KHA), Nonsree High School (NHS), Watsing High School (WHS), Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), Chokchai 4 Police Station (CPS), Dindaeng Housing Authority (DHA) and Badindecha High School (BHS). For all monitoring stations, each sample covered a period of 24 hours taken at a normal weekday every month from January-December 2006 forming a database of 84 individual air samples (i.e. $12{\times}7=84$). Atmospheric concentrations of low molecular weight PAHs (i.e. phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene and fluoranthene) were measured in $PM_{10}$ at seven observatory sites operated by the pollution control department of Thailand (PCD). The mutagenicity of extracts of the samples was compared in Salmonella according to standard Ames test method. The dependence of the effects on sampling time and on sampling location was investigated with the aid of a calculation of mutagenic index (MI). This MI was used to estimate the increase in mutagenicity above background levels (i.e. negative control) at the seven monitoring sites in urban area of Bangkok due to anthropogenic emissions within that area. Applications of the AMES method showed that the average MI of $PM_{10}$ collected at all sampling sites were $1.37{\pm}0.10$ (TA98; +S9), $1.24{\pm}0.08$ (TA98; -S9), $1.45{\pm}0.10$ (TA100; +S9) and $1.30{\pm}0.09$ (TA100; -S9) with relatively less variations. Analytical results reconfirm that the particulate PAH concentrations measured at PCD air quality monitoring stations are moderately low in comparison with previous results observed in other countries. In addition, the concept of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) was employed to investigate the potential risks of exposure to particulate PAHs in Bangkok atmosphere.


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