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Vertical Distribution and Potential Risk of Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in High Buildings of Bangkok, Thailand

  • Pongpiachan, Siwatt (NIDA Center for Research and Development of Disaster Prevention and Management, School of Social and Environmental Development, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA))
  • 발행 : 2013.03.30

초록

Vertical variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in $PM_{10}$ were investigated in order to assess the factors controlling their behavior in the urban atmosphere of Bangkok City, Thailand. Air samples were collected every three hours for three days at three different levels at Bai-Yok Suit Hotel (site-1 and site-2) and Bai-Yok Sky Hotel (site-3) in February $18^{th}-21^{st}$, 2008. The B[a]P concentration showed a value 0.54 fold, lower than the United Kingdom Expert Panel on Air Quality Standard (UK-EPAQS; i.e. 250 pg $m^{-3}$) at the top level. In contrast, the B[a]P concentrations exhibited, at the ground and middle level, values 1.50 and 1.43 times higher than the UK-EPAQS standard respectively. PAHs displayed a diurnal variation with maximums at night time because of the traffic rush hour coupled with lower nocturnal mixing layer, and the decreased wind speed, which consequently stabilized nocturnal boundary layer and thus enhanced the PAH contents around midnight. By applying Nielsen's technique, the estimated traffic contributions at Site-3 were higher than those of Site-1: about 10% and 22% for Method 1 and Method 2 respectively. These results reflect the more complicated emission sources of PAHs at ground level in comparison with those of higher altitudes. The average values of incremental individual lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for all sampling sites fell within the range of $10^{-7}-10^{-6}$, being close to the acceptable risk level ($10^{-6}$) but much lower than the priority risk level ($10^{-4}$).

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