Meta-analysis of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Cancer

  • Murthy, Archana Krishna (Department of Public Health Dentistry, MR Ambedkar Dental College) ;
  • Kumar, Vinod (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Geetam Dental College) ;
  • Suresh, K.P. (Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance)
  • Published : 2013.03.30


Background: Studies of associations between genetic polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) with risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) have generated conflicting results. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to clarify the effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on the risk of developing NPC. Materials and Methods: A literature search in two electronic databases namely PubMed and EMBASE up to December 2012 was conducted and eligible papers were finally selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and presence of heterogeneity and publication bias in those studies were evaluated. Results: A total of 9 studies concerning nasopharyngeal cancer were evaluated. Analyses of all relevant studies showed increased NPC risk to be significantly associated with the null genotypes of GSTMI (OR=1.43, 95%CI 1.24-1.66) and GSTT1 (OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.09-1.51). In addition, evidence of publication bias was detected among the studies on GSTM1 polymorphism. Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrated the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes are associated with an increased risk of NPC.


  1. Bendjemana K, Abdennebi M, Gara S, et al (2006). Genetic polymorphism of gluthation-S transferases and N-acetyl transferases 2 and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the Tunisia experience. Bull Cancer, 93, 297-302.
  2. Boccia S, La Torre G, Gianfagna F, Mannocci A, Ricciardi G (2006). Glutathione S-transferase T1 status and gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of the literature. Mutagenesis, 21, 115-23.
  3. Chen C, Nirunsuksiri W (1999). Decreased expression of glutathione S-transferase M1 in HPV16- transfected human cervical keratinocytes in culture. Carcinogenesis, 20, 699-703.
  4. Chen XX, Zhao RP, Qiu LX, et al (2011). Glutathione S-transferase T1 polymorphism is associated with breast cancer susceptibility. Cytokine, 56, 477-80.
  5. Cheng YJ, Chien YC, Hildesheim A, et al (2003). No association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, NAT2, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 12, 179-80.
  6. Cooper HM, Hedges LV (1994). The Handbook of Research Synthesis. Vol 236. Russell Sage Foundation, New York.
  7. Da SJ, Liang B, Wu HL, Guan LL (2002). Relationship between GSTM 1 gene polymorphism and genetic susceptibility in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Practical J Cancer (Chinese), 17, 617-9.
  8. Deng ZL, Wei YP, Ma Y (2004). Frequent genetic deletion of detoxifying enzyme GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in Guangxi Province, China. Zhonghua. Zhong Liu Za Zhi, 26, 598-600.
  9. Economopoulos KP, Sergentanis TN, Vlahos NF (2010). Glutathione S-transferase M1, T1, and P1 polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 20, 732-7.
  10. Egger M, Davey SG, Schneider M, Minder C (1997). Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ, 315, 629-34.
  11. Epidemiological and etiological factors associated with nasopharyngal carcinoma (2003). ICMR bulletin, 33, 9.
  12. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al (2010). Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer, 127, 2893-917.
  13. Gao L-B, Pan X-M, Li L-J, et al (2011). Null Genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Contribute to Risk of Cervical Neoplasia: An Evidence-Based Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE, 6, 20157.
  14. Gong M, Dong W, An R (2012). Glutathione S-transferase T1 polymorphism contributes to bladder cancer risk: a metaanalysis involving 50 studies. DNA Cell Biol, 31, 1187-97.
  15. Guo X, O'Brien SJ, Zeng Y, Nelson GW, Winkler CA (2003). GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions and the risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Han Chinese. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 17, 1760-3.
  16. Hashibe M, Brennan P, Strange RC et al (2003). Meta- and pooled analyses of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and CYP1A1 genotypes and risk of head and neck cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 12, 1509-17.
  17. Hayashi S, Watanabe J, Kawajiri K (1991). Genetic polymorphisms in the 5'-flanking region change transcriptional regulation of the human cytochrome P450IIE1 gene. J Biochem, 110, 559-65.
  18. Hosgood HD, Berndt SI, Lan Q (2007). GST genotypes and lung cancer susceptibility in Asian populations with indoor air pollution exposures: a meta-analysis. Mutat Res, 636, 134-43.
  19. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 61, 69-90.
  20. Jiang Y, Li N, Dong P, et al (2011). Polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTTI and GSTP1 and nasopharyngeal cancer in the East of China: a case-control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 3097-100.
  21. Kihara M, Kihara M, Noda K (1995). Risk of smoking for squamous and small-cell carcinomas of the lung modulated by combinations of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphisms in a Japanese population. Carcinogenesis, 16, 2331-6.
  22. Liao ZL, Deng Zl, Wei YP, et al (2005). Associations of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms with nasopharyngeal cancer risk. J Guangxi Medical University (Chinese), 22, 372-4.
  23. Lin CL, Lo WF, Lee TH, et al (2002). Immunization with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) peptide-pulsed dendritic cells induces functional D8+ T-cell immunity and may lead to tumor regression in patients with EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Res, 62, 6952-8.
  24. Liu Y, Xu LZ (2012). Meta-analysis of association between GSTM1 gene polymorphism and cervical cancer. Asian Pac J Trop Med, 5, 480-4.
  25. Nazar-Stewart V, Vaughan TL, Burt RD, et al (1999). Glutathione S-transferase M1 and susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 8, 547-51.
  26. Nie F, Chen Z, Cao C, Cen Y (2011). Absence of association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and melanoma susceptibility: a meta-analysis. DNA Cell Biol, 30, 783-8.
  27. Saadat M (2006). Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) and susceptibility to gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer Sci, 97, 505-9.
  28. Sima X-T, Zhong W-Y, Liu J-G, You C (2012). Lack of association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and brain tumour risk. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 325-8.
  29. Tiwawech D, Srivatanakul P, Karalak A, Ishida T (2005). Glutathione S-transferase M1 gene polymorphism in Thai nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 6, 270-5.
  30. Tripathy CB, Roy N (2006). Meta-analysis of glutathione s-transferase M1genotype and risk toward head and neck cancer. Head Neck, 28, 217-24.
  31. Vogl FD, Taioli E, Maugard C et al (2004). Glutathione S-transferases M1, T1, and P1 and breast cancer: a pooled analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 13, 1473-9.
  32. White DL, Li D, Nurgalieva Z, El-Serag HB (2008). Genetic variants of glutathione S-transferase as possible risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma: a HuGE systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Epidemiol, 167, 377-89.
  33. Ye Z, Song H, Guo Y (2004). Glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 status and the risk of head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis. J Med Genet, 41, 360-5.
  34. Ye Z, Song H (2005). Glutathione s-transferase polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1) and the risk of acute leukaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer, 41, 980-9.
  35. Zhao ZQ, Guan QK, Yang FY, et al (2012). System review and metaanalysis of the relationships between five metabolic gene polymorphisms and colorectal adenoma risk. Tumour Biol, 33, 523-35.
  36. Zhuo W, Wang Y, Zhuo X, et al (2009). CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms and oral cancer risk: association studies via evidence-based meta-analyses. Cancer Investigation, 27, 86-95.
  37. Zhuo X, Cai L, Xiang Z, Li Q, Zhang X (2009). GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and nasopharyngeal cancer risk: an evidence-based meta-analysis. J Experimental & Clinical Cancer Res, 28, 46.

Cited by

  1. Lack of Any Association of GST Genetic Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Ovarian Cancer - a Meta-analysis vol.15, pp.15, 2014,
  2. Distribution and Haplotype Associations of XPD Lys751Gln, XRCC1 Arg280His and XRCC1 Arg399Gln Polymorphisms with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in the Malaysian Population vol.15, pp.6, 2014,
  3. The association of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in patients with osteosarcoma: evidence from a meta-analysis vol.24, pp.3, 2014,
  4. Evaluation of Risk Factors for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in a High-risk Area of India, the Northeastern Region vol.16, pp.12, 2015,
  5. The Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) 30-bp deletion and XhoI-polymorphism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies vol.4, pp.1, 2015,
  6. Association of the p53 or GSTM1 polymorphism with the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A meta-analysis vol.4, pp.2, 2015,