DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Beyond Limitations: Practical Strategies for Improving Cancer Care in Nigeria

  • Eguzo, Kelechi (School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan-Saskatoon) ;
  • Camazine, Brian (Department of Surgery, Nigerian Christian Hospital-Aba)
  • Published : 2013.05.30

Abstract

Background: The burden due to cancers is an emerging public health concern especially in resource-limited countries like Nigeria. The WHO estimates that cancer kills more people than tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. As people in Nigeria and other developing countries are beginning to survive infectious diseases, there is an observed epidemiologic transition to chronic diseases, such as cancers. In 2008, 75 out of 1,000 Nigerians died of cancer. Despite the rising incidence and public health importance, Nigeria lacks an organized and comprehensive strategy to deal with cancers. Materials and Methods: This article reviewed 30 peer-reviewed manuscripts on cancer care in four countries. It highlights the limitations to cancer care in Nigeria; due to lack of awareness, low health literacy, absence of organized screening programs, inadequate manpower (in terms of quality and quantity) as well as limited treatment options. Results: This review led to the formulation of a proposal for Nigerian National Cancer Policy, mainly drawn from effective strategies used in Canada, Brazil and Kenya. This is a vertical cancer program that is patient-centered with an emphasis on tobacco control and cancer disease screening (similar to Canada and Brazil). Additionally, it emphasizes primary cancer prevention (similar to Kenya). Its horizontal integration with other disease programs like HIV/AIDS will improve affordability in a poor resourced country like Nigeria. Capacity building for health professionals, hub-and-spoke implementation of screening services, as well as investment in effective treatment options and increased research in cancer care are essential. International 'twinning collaborations' between institutions in richer countries and Nigeria will enhance effective knowledge translation and improve the quality of patient care. Conclusions: A national cancer policy must be developed and implemented in Nigeria in order to overcome the present limitations which help contribute to the observed increases in cancer morbidity and mortality rates. Cancer control is feasible in Nigeria if the nation was to consider and employ some of the cost-effective strategies proposed here.

Keywords

Cancer control program;Nigeria;capacity building;twinning collaboration

References

  1. AIDSRelief (2012). AIDSRelief Nigeria: Strengthening Local Health Networks for Sustainable HIV Care and Treatment http://issuu.com/catholicreliefservices/docs/aidsrelief_nigeria_health_networks?mode=window&backgroundColor=%23222222
  2. Akhiqbe AO, Omuemu VO (2009). Knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening among female health workers in a Nigerian urban city. BMC Cancer, 9, 203. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-9-203
  3. Alwan A, Resnikoff S, Sepulveda C (2008). Cancer control: knowledge into action - WHO guide for effective programmes Geneva.
  4. Boyle P, Levin B (2008). World Cancer Report 2008. Lyon available on http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/wcr/2008/index.php
  5. British Columbia Cancer Agency (2006). BC Cancer Agency Strategic Plan. Vancouver http://www.bccancer.bc.ca/NR/rdonlyres/1C2F0481-8451-4CF8-82EC-294BB2D492B/19827/BCCA_Strategic_Plan_Updated_Oct06.pdf.
  6. British Columbia Cancer Agency (2012), Preceptor Program http://www.bccancer.bc.ca/HPI/FPON/Precep/default.htm
  7. Canadian Strategy for Cancer Control (2005): Statement from the Chief Public Health Officer, Public Health Agency of Canada. Ottawa. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/media/cphoacsp/cancer0527-eng.php
  8. Clement AA (2007). Cancer in Nigeria. ASCO News and Forum, April 2007.
  9. Disease Control Priorities Project (2007). Controlling Cancer in Developing Countries. http://www.dcp2.org/file/79/DCPP-Cancer.pdf.
  10. Economist Intelligence Unit (2009). Breakaway: the global burden of cancer?challenges and opportunities. The Economist. London available on http://www.livestrong.org/pdfs/GlobalEconomicImpact.
  11. Eguzo K, and Camazine B (2012). Cancer care in resourcelimited settings: a call for action. J Cancer Sci Ther, 4, 223-6.
  12. Eguzo K, Umezurike CC, Charlotte J, Camazine B (2012). Where there is no Oncologist: A Manual of Practical Oncology in Resource-Limited Settings. Earthwide Surgical Foundation.
  13. Farmer P, Frenk J, Knaul FM, et al (2010). Expansion of cancer care and control in countries of low and middle income: a call to action. Lancet, 376, 1186-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61152-X
  14. Fatimah A (2012). Epidemiology and incidence of common cancers in Nigeria. Institute of Human Virology-Nigeria, www.ihvnigeria.org/.../cancer...cancers...nigeria/download accessed October 5, 2012
  15. Federal Ministry of Health. Revised National Health Policy. Abuja: 2004
  16. Global Task Force on Expanded Access to Cancer Care and Control in Developing Countries (2012), http://gtfccc.harvard.edu/icb/icb.do?keyword=k69586&pageid=icb.page342840.
  17. Instituto Nacional De Cancer (2012). http://www.inca.gov.br/english/
  18. Kenyan Department of Research (2011). Policy brief on the Situational analysis of cancer in Kenya, Republic of Kenya National Assembly. Nairobi.
  19. Kenyan Gazette Supplement (2012). The Cancer Prevention and Control Act, 80, 641-4.
  20. Kolawole AO (2011), Feasible cancer control strategies for Nigeria: mini-review. Am J Tropical Med & Public Health, 1, 1-10.
  21. Lambert R, Sauvaget C, Sankaranarayanan R (2009). Mass screening for colorectal cancer is not justified in most developing countries. Int J Cancer, 125, 253-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.24371
  22. Matthew U, Stanley S (2012). Using communication technology to improve global hematologic care. Hematologist, 9, 7.
  23. McKinley KE, Bryan-Smith L, Dosch TL, Hamory BH, Fillipo BH (2002). A hub-and-spoke model of care: providing specialty care in patients' own communities, Jt Comm J Qual Improv, 28, 574-5.
  24. National Planning Commission (2010). Nigeria Vision 20: 2020. The First National Implementation Plan (2010- 2013). Volume II: Sectoral Plans and Programmes, Abuja http://www.npc.gov.ng/vault/files/NV2020-NIP-Volume-IIOriginal-document_edited__versioin3_10_06_2010.pdf
  25. Okobia MN, Bunker CH, Okonofua FE, Osime U (2006). Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer: a cross-sectional study. World J Surg Oncol, 4, 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7819-4-11
  26. Oyebade W (2012). Anti-tobacco groups task media on control bill. The Guardian. 2012 July 26. http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=93412:anti-tobacco-groups-task-media-oncontrol-bill&catid=93:science&Itemid=608
  27. Royal Thai College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RTCOG) and the JHPIEGO Corporation Cervical Cancer Prevention Group (2003). Safety, acceptability, and feasibility of a single-visit approach to cervical-cancer prevention in rural Thailand: a demonstration project. Lancet, 361, 814-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12707-9
  28. Santini L (2007), Cancer Control in Brazil, Proceedings in the 7th INCTR Annual Meeting Sao Paulo, http://inctr.ctisinc.com:9000/sites/InCTR/Education/Annual%20Meeting%202007/Luis%20Santini%20-%20Cancer%20control%20in%20Brasil.pdf, 2007,March 1-4.
  29. Sharif SK, Kimani F (2011). National Cancer Control Strategy (2011-2016), Ministry of Public Health and Sanitations and Ministry of Health Services. Nairobi.
  30. Sutcliffe S, Allen B, Branton P, et al (2006) The Canadian Strategy for Cancer Control: A Cancer Plan for Canada. CSCC Governing Council. Ottawa. http://www.partnershipagainstcancer.ca/wp-content/uploads/CSCC_CancerPlan_20061.pdf
  31. The World Bank (2012). Brazil Country Profile. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/brazil
  32. World Health Organization (2006). Cancer Factsheet No 97. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/print/html. Geneva
  33. World Health Organization (2012). Breast cancer prevention and control. http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/en/index3.html