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In Vitro Antitumor Properties of an Isolate from Leaves of Cassia alata L

  • Olarte, Elizabeth Iglesias (Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines) ;
  • Herrera, Annabelle Aliga (Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines) ;
  • Villasenor, Irene Manese (Institute of Chemistry, College of Science, University of the Philippines) ;
  • Jacinto, Sonia Donaldo (Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines)
  • Published : 2013.05.30

Abstract

Leaf extracts of Cassia alata L (akapulko), traditionally used for treatment of a variety of diseases, were evaluated for their potential antitumor properties in vitro. MTT assays were used to examine the cytotoxic effects of crude extracts on five human cancer cell lines, namely MCF-7, derived from a breast carcinoma, SK-BR-3, another breast carcinoma, T24 a bladder carcinoma, Col 2, a colorectal carcinoma, and A549, a nonsmall cell lung adenocarcinoma. Hexane extracts showed remarkable cytotoxicity against MCF-7, T24, and Col 2 in a dose-dependent manner. This observation was confirmed by morphological investigation using light microscopy. Further bioassay-directed fractionation of the cytotoxic extract led to the isolation of a TLC-pure isolate labeled as f6l. Isolate f6l was further evaluated using MTT assay and morphological and biochemical investigations, which likewise showed selectivity to MCF-7, T24, and Col 2 cells with $IC_{50}$ values of 16, 17, and 17 ${\mu}g/ml$, respectively. Isolate f6l, however, showed no cytotoxicity towards the non-cancer Chinese hamster ovarian cell line (CHO-AA8). Cytochemical investigation using DAPI staining and biochemical investigation using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-a method used to detect DNA fragmentation-together with caspase assay, demonstrated apoptotic cell death. Spectral characterization of isolate f6l revealed that it contained polyunsaturated fatty acid esters. Considering the cytotoxicity profile and its mode of action, f6l might represent a new promising compound with potential for development as an anticancer drug with low or no toxicity to non-cancer cells used in this study.

Keywords

Cassia alata L;in vitro antitumor property;MTT formazan assay;TUNEL;caspase assay

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