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Suppression of β-catenin and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Cell Proliferation in Azoxymethane-Induced Colonic Cancer in Rats by Rice Bran Phytic Acid (PA)

  • Saad, Norazalina (UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research Laboratory, Universiti Putra Malaysia) ;
  • Esa, Norhaizan Mohd (Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia) ;
  • Ithnin, Hairuszah (UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research Laboratory, Universiti Putra Malaysia)
  • Published : 2013.05.30

Abstract

Background: Phytic acid (PA) is a polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that can be found in high amounts in most cereals, legumes, nut oil, seeds and soy beans. It has been suggested to play a significant role in inhibition of colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to investigate expression changes of ${\beta}$-catenin and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cell proliferation in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence after treatment with rice bran PA by immunocytochemistry. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 equal groups with 12 rats in each group. For cancer induction two intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) were given at 15 mg/kg bodyweight over a 2-weeks period. During the post initiation phase, two different concentrations of PA, 0.2% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) were administered in the diet. Results: Results of ${\beta}$-catenin, COX-2 expressions and cell proliferation of Ki-67 showed a significant contribution in colonic cancer progression. For ${\beta}$-catenin and COX-2 expression, there was a significant difference between groups at p<0.05. With Ki-67, there was a statistically significant lowering the proliferating index as compared to AOM alone (p<0.05). A significant positive correlation (p=0.01) was noted between COX-2 expression and proliferation. Total ${\beta}$-catenin also demonstrated a significant positive linear relationship with total COX-2 (p=0.044). Conclusions: This study indicated potential value of PA extracted from rice bran in reducing colonic cancer risk in rats.

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