DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Insights into Smoking and its Cessation among Current Smokers in India

  • Binnal, Almas (Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University) ;
  • Rajesh, GuruRaghavendran (Department of Public Health Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University) ;
  • Ahmed, Junaid (Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University) ;
  • Denny, Ceena (Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University) ;
  • Nayak, Sangeetha U. (Department of Periodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University)
  • Published : 2013.05.30

Abstract

Background: Initiation, perpetuation and cessation of smoking are all multifactorial. It is essential to explore interactions among various parameters influencing smoking and its cessation for effective smoking cessation interventions. Objectives: To obtain insights into smoking and its cessation among current smokers in India. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among current smokers visiting the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences (MCODS), Manipal University, Mangalore. Knowledge, attitudes, behavior, worksite practices towards smoking and its cessation, barriers to smoking cessation and socio-demographic variables were explored using a structured, pretested, self-administered questionnaire. Results: A total of 175 current smokers participated in the study. Mean knowledge, attitude, worksite practice and barrier scores were $15.2{\pm}5.67$ (66.1%), $57.5{\pm}7.67$ (82.1%), $4.18{\pm}2.02$ (41.8%) and $57.4{\pm}12.37$ (63.7%) respectively. Correlation analysis revealed: association of knowledge with education, occupation and religion; attitude with education and occupation; worksite practices with occupation; knowledge with attitude; and barriers negatively with worksite practices. The majority (85.7%) of respondents intended to quit smoking and this was associated with higher attitude scores, whereas actual quit attempts were associated with high knowledge, attitudes, worksite practices and low barrier scores. Conclusions: Various socio-demographic factors associated with smoking and its cessation were identified. The present study highlights the importance of identifying and targeting these interactions while framing guidelines and interventions for effective tobacco cessation in a developing country like India.

Keywords

Smoking cessation;current smokers;worksite practices;barriers;India

References

  1. Al-Naggar RA, Jawad AA, Bobryshev YV (2012). Prevalence of cigarette smoking and associated factors among secondary school teachers in Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5539-43. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.11.5539
  2. Bhojani UM, Chander SJ, Devadasan N (2009). Tobacco use and related factors among pre-university students in a college in Bangalore, India. Natl Med J India, 22, 294-7.
  3. Curry SJ, Grothaus L, McBride C (1997). Reasons for quitting: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for smoking cessation in a population-based sample of smokers. Addict Behave, 22, 727-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(97)00059-2
  4. Deatona C, Froelicher ES, Wuc LH (2011). The global burden of cardiovascular disease. Eur J Cardiovasc Nursing, 10, 5-13.
  5. Eriksen M, Mackay J, Ross H (2012). The Tobacco Atlas. 4th Ed. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, and, New York, NY: World Lung Foundation.
  6. Ezzati M, Henley SJ, Lopez AD, Thun MJ (2005a). Role of smoking in global and regional cancer epidemiology: current patterns and data needs. Int J Cancer, 116, 963-71. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.21100
  7. Ezzati M, Henley SJ, Michael J, Thun MJ, Lopez AD (2005b). Role of smoking in global and regional cardiovascular mortality. Circulation, 112, 489-97. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.521708
  8. Ezzati M, Lopez AD (2004). Regional, disease specific patterns of smoking-attributable mortality in 2000. Tob Control, 13, 388-95. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2003.005215
  9. Gajalakshmi V, Peto R, Kanaka TS, Jha P (2003). Smoking and mortality from tuberculosis and other diseases in India: retrospective study of 43000 adult male deaths and 35000 controls. Lancet, 362, 507-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14109-8
  10. Gavin A (2004). Smoking is a major cause of premature death worldwide. Evidence-based Healthcare, 8, 95-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehbc.2004.02.006
  11. Hyland A, Borland R, Li Q, et al (2006). Individual-level predictors of cessation behaviors among participants in the international tobacco control (ITC) four country survey. Tob Control, 15, 83-94. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2003.007237
  12. Hyland A, Li Q, Bauer JE, et al (2004). Predictors of cessation in a cohort of current and former smokers followed over 13 years. Nicotine Tob Res, 6, 363-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200412331320761
  13. Jayakrishnan R, Geetha S, Binukumar B, Sreekumar, Lekshmi K (2011). Self-reported tobacco use, knowledge on tobacco legislation and tobacco hazards among adolescents in rural Kerala State. Indian J Dent Res, 22, 195-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.84280
  14. Jha P, Jacob B, Gajalakshmi V, et al (2008). A nationally representative case?control study of smoking and death in India. N Engl J Med, 358, 1137-47. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa0707719
  15. John RM, Sung HY, Max W (2009). Economic cost of tobacco use in India, 2004. Tob Control, 18, 138-43. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2008.027466
  16. Johnson N (2001). Tobacco use and oral cancer: a global perspective. J Dent Educ, 65, 328-39.
  17. Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Rosner BA, Colditz GA (2008). Smoking and smoking cessation in relation to mortality. JAMA, 299, 2037-47. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.299.17.2037
  18. Khami MR, Murtomaa H, Razeghi S, Virtanen JI (2010). Smoking and its determinants among Iranian dental students. Med Princ Pract, 19, 390-4. https://doi.org/10.1159/000316379
  19. Kuppuswamy B (1981). Manual of socioeconomic status scale (urban). Delhi: Manasayan.
  20. Lloyd-Jones D, Adams RJ, Brown TM, et al (2010). Heart disease and stroke statistics-2010 update: a report from the American heart association. Circulation, 121, 46-215. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192667
  21. Martinez-Sanchez JM, Fernandez E, Fu M, et al. (2010). Smoking behaviour, involuntary smoking, attitudes towards smoke-free legislations, and tobacco control activities in the European Union. PLoS One, 5, 13881. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013881
  22. Mathers CD, Loncar D (2006). Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med, 3, 442. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030442
  23. Mellsted H (2006). Cancer initiatives in developing countries. Annals Oncol, 17, 24-31.
  24. Minh An DT, Van Minh H, Huong le T, et al (2013). Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a crosssectional survey of Vietnamese adults. Glob Health Action, 6, 1-9.
  25. Murray CJ, Lopez AD (1997). Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause, 1990-2020: global burden of the disease study. Lancet, 349, 1498-504. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07492-2
  26. Murthy NS, Mathew A (2004). Cancer epidemiology, prevention and control. Current Science, 86, 518-27.
  27. Murthy P, Saddicchha S (2010). Tobacco cessation services in India: Recent developments and the need for expansion. Indian J Cancer, 47, 69-74. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-509X.63873
  28. Oncken C, McKee S, Krishnan-Sarin S, O'Malley S, Mazure CM (2005). Knowledge and perceived risk of smokingrelated conditions: a survey of cigarette smokers. Prev Med, 40, 779-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.09.024
  29. Osuchowski F, Penar-Zadarko B, Bukala-Siedlecka I, Binkowska-Bury M (2009). The opinions of employees about smoking in the workplace. Przegl Lek, 66, 801-4.
  30. Raupach T, Merker J, Hasenfuss G, Andreas S, Pipe A (2011). Knowledge gaps about smoking cessation in hospitalized patients and their doctors. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil, 18, 334-41. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741826710389370
  31. Reddy P, Meyer-Weitz A, Yach D (1996). Smoking status, knowledge of health effects and attitudes towards tobacco control in South Africa. Afr Med J, 86, 1389-93.
  32. Saade G, Warren CW, Jones NR, Mokdad A (2009). Tobacco use and cessation counseling among health professional students: Lebanon global health professions student survey. J Med Liban, 57, 243-7.
  33. Samet JM (1992). The health benefits of smoking cessation. Med Clin North Am, 76, 399-414.
  34. Sansone GC, Raute LJ, Fong GT, et al (2010). Knowledge of Health Effects and Intentions to Quit Among Smokers in India: Findings From the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 9, 564-78.
  35. Shah PB, Pednekar MS, Gupta PC, Sinha DN (2008). The relationship between tobacco advertisements and smoking status of youth in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 9, 637-64.
  36. Sims TH (2009). The committee on substance abuse. technical report?tobacco as a substance of abuse. Pediatrics, 124, 1045-53. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-2121
  37. Sinha DN, Gupta PC, Gangadharan P (2007). Tobacco Use among Students and School Personnel in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 8, 417-21.
  38. Takano Y, Kohrogi H, Matsumoto M, Suga M, Ando M (2001). Lack of knowledge about smoking-related risks for diseases in the general public in Japan. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi, 39, 389-93.
  39. Tobacco use. Global Adult Tobacco Survey: India Report 2009-2010 (2010). Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.
  40. US Department of Health and Human Services (1990). The health benefits of smoking cessation: a report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Office on Smoking and Health.
  41. US Department of Health and Human Services (2012). Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for disease control and prevention, National center for chronic disease prevention and health promotion, Office on smoking and health.
  42. Weinstein N, Slovic P, Waters E, Gibson G (2004). Public understanding of the illnesses caused by cigarette smoking. Nicotine Tob Res, 6, 349-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200410001676459
  43. White WB (2007). Smoking related morbidity and mortality in the cardiovascular setting. Prev Cardiol, 10, 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1520-037X.2007.06050.x
  44. Winn DM (2001). Tobacco use and oral disease. J Dent Educ, 65, 306-12.
  45. World Bank (2000). World Development Report 1999/2000: Entering the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press.
  46. World Health Oraganisation Report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: the MPOWER package (2008). Geneva: World Health Organization.
  47. World Health Organisation (2009). WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic 2009: Implementing Smoke-free Environments. Geneva: WHO.
  48. World Health Organisation (2011). Economics of tobacco toolkit: assessment of the economic costs of smoking. Geneva: WHO.
  49. Wu J, Sin DD (2011). Improved patient outcome with smoking cessation: when is it too late? Int J COPD, 6, 259-67.
  50. Yang J, Hammond D, Driezen P, Fong GT, Jiang Y (2010). Health knowledge and perception of risks among Chinese smokers and non-smokers: findings from the Wave 1 ITC China Survey. Tob Control, 19, 1823.
  51. Yu DK, Wu KK, Abdullah AS, et al (2004). Smoking cessation among Hong Kong Chinese smokers attending hospital as outpatients: impact of doctors' advice, successful quitting and intention to quit. Asia Pac J Public Health, 16, 115-20. https://doi.org/10.1177/101053950401600207
  52. Zhang H, Cai B (2003). The impact of tobacco on lung health in China. Respirology, 8, 17-21. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1843.2003.00433.x

Cited by

  1. Prisoners' Perception of Tobacco Use and Cessation in Chhatisgarh, India - The Truth from Behind the Bars vol.15, pp.1, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.1.413
  2. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Smoking Intentions among Non-smoking and Smoking Adolescents in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia vol.15, pp.10, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.10.4359
  3. Assessing beliefs and risk perceptions on smoking and smoking cessation in immigrant Chinese adult smokers residing in Vancouver, Canada: a cross-sectional study vol.5, pp.2, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006435