Dietary Phytochemical Index and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study in a Population of Iranian Women

  • Bahadoran, Zahra (Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences) ;
  • Karimi, Zeinab (Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology) ;
  • Houshiar-Rad, Anahita (Office, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute) ;
  • Mirzayi, Hamid-Reza (Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Rashidkhani, Bahram (Department of Community Nutrition, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute)
  • Published : 2013.05.30


In this study we assessed the dietary phytochemical index in relation to the risk of breast cancer in women. This case-control study was conducted on 100 incident breast cancer cases and 175 healthy controls. Data regarding socio-demographic factors, medical history, medications, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Dietary data were obtained using a validated food frequency questionnaire and a energy-adjusted dietary phytochemical index (PI) was calculated. The odds ratios of breast cancer were assessed across energyadjusted PI quartile categories. The mean age of participants was $46.2{\pm}8.9$ and $45.9{\pm}9.4$ years in cases and controls, respectively. The mean PI across quartile categories was $13.9{\pm}2.6$, $21.1{\pm}1.8$, $26.7{\pm}2.1$, $41.6{\pm}10.2$ in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. After adjustment for all potential confounders, the risk of breast cancer in the forth quartile of dietary PI was significantly decreased (OR=0.08, 95%CI=0.01-0.84). Higher intake of phytochemical-rich foods is associated with lower risk of breast cancer.


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