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Comprehensive Mutation Analysis of PIK3CA, p14ARF, p16INK4a and p21Waf1/Cip1 Genes is Suggestive of a Non- Neoplastic Nature of Phenytoin Induced Gingival Overgrowth

  • Swamikannu, Bhuminathan (Department of Prosthodontia, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath University) ;
  • Kumar, Kishore S. (Department of Orthodontia, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath University) ;
  • Jayesh, Raghavendra S. (Department of Prosthodontia, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath University) ;
  • Rajendran, Senthilnathan (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Meenakshiammal Dental College and Hospital) ;
  • Muthupalani, Rajendran Shanmugam (Department of General Medicine, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath University) ;
  • Ramanathan, Arvind (Human Genetics Laboratory, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Bharath University)
  • Published : 2013.05.30

Abstract

Background: Dilantin sodium (phenytoin) is an antiepileptic drug, which is routinely used to control generalized tonic clonic seizure and partial seizure episodes. A few case reports of oral squamous cell carcinomas arising from regions of phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth (GO), and overexpression of mitogenic factors and p53 have presented this condition as a pathology with potential to transform into malignancy. We recently investigated the genetic status of p53 and H-ras, which are known to be frequently mutated in Indian oral carcinomas in GO tissues and found them to only contain wild type sequences, which suggested a non-neoplastic nature of phenytoin induced GO. However, besides p53 and H-ras, other oncogenes and tumor suppressors such as PIK3CA, p14ARF, p16INK4a and $p21^{Waf1/Cip1}$, are frequently altered in oral squamous cell carcinoma, and hence are required to be analyzed in phenytoin induced GO tissues to be affirmative of its non-neoplastic nature. Methods: 100ng of chromosomal DNA isolated from twenty gingival overgrowth tissues were amplified with primers for exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA, exons $1{\alpha}$, $1{\beta}$ and 2 of p16INK4a and p14ARF, and exon 2 of $p21^{Waf1/Cip1}$, in independent reactions. PCR amplicons were subsequently gel purified and eluted products were sequenced. Results: Sequencing analysis of the twenty samples of phenytoin induced gingival growth showed no mutations in the analyzed exons of PIK3CA, p14ARF, p16INK4a and $p21^{Waf1/Cip1}$. Conclusion: The present data indicate that the mutational alterations of genes, PIK3CA, p14ARF, p16INK4a and $p21^{Waf1/Cip1}$ that are frequently mutated in oral squamous cell carcinomas are rare in phenytoin induced gingival growth. Thus the findings provide further evidence that phenytoin induced gingival overgrowth as a non-neoplastic lesion, which may be considered as clinically significant given the fact that the epileptic patients are routinely administered with phenytoin for the rest of their lives to control seizure episodes.

Keywords

Cancer from gingival overgrowth;phenytoin induced gingival carcinoma;drug induced gingival carcinoma

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