- Volume 14 Issue 5
DOI QR Code
Hospital Outpatients are Satisfactory for Case-control Studies on Cancer and Diet in China: A Comparison of Population Versus Hospital Controls
- Li, Lin (School of Population Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Western Australia) ;
- Zhang, Min (School of Population Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Western Australia) ;
- Holman, C. D'Arcy J. (School of Population Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Western Australia)
- Published : 2013.05.30
Background: To investigate the internal validity of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed for use in Chinese women and to compare habitual dietary intakes between population and hospital controls measured by the FFQ. Materials and Methods: A quantitative FFQ and a short food habit questionnaire (SFHQ) were developed and adapted for cancer and nutritional studies. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed in 814 Chinese women aged 18-81 years (407 outpatients and 407 population controls) by face-to-face interview using the FFQ in Shenyang, Northeast China in 2009-2010. The Goldberg formula (ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate, EI/BMR) was used to assess the validity of the FFQ. Correlation analyses compared the SFHQ variables with those of the quantitative FFQ. Differences in dietary intakes between hospital and population controls were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results: The partial correlation coefficients were moderate to high (0.42 to 0.80; all p<0.05) for preserved food intake, fat consumption and tea drinking variables between the SFHQ and the FFQ. The average EI/BMR was 1.93 with 88.5% of subjects exceeding the Goldberg cut-off value of 1.35. Hospital controls were comparable to population controls in consumption of 17 measured food groups and mean daily intakes of energy and selected nutrients. Conclusions: The FFQ had reasonable validity to measure habitual dietary intakes of Chinese women. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group for food consumption and intakes of energy and nutrients measured by the FFQ in a Chinese hospital setting.
- Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC, et al (2000). Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 32, 498-504. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200009001-00009
- Akhter M, Iwasaki M, Yamaji T, et al (2009). Dietary isoflavone and the risk of colorectal adenoma: a case?control study in Japan. Br J Cancer, 100, 1812-6. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6605088
- Almendingen K, Hofstad B, Trygg K, et al (2001). Current diet and colorectal adenomas: a case_control study including different sets of traditionally chosen control groups. Eur J Cancer Prev, 10, 395-406. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008469-200110000-00003
- Amadori D, Nanni O, Ricci M, et al (1995). Hospital versus population controls in a retrospective study on diet and stomach cancer. Eur J Public Health, 5, 209-14. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/5.3.209
- Bedard D, Shatenstein B, Nadon S (2004). Underreporting of energy intake from a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire completed by adults in Montreal. Public Health Nutr, 7, 675-81.
- Bhattacharyya O, Delu Y, Wong ST, et al (2011). Evolution of primary care in China 1997-2009. Health policy, 100, 174-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.11.005
- Chang SC, Rashid A, Gao YT, et al (2008). Polymorphism of genes related to insulin sensitivity and the risk of biliary tract cancer and biliary stone: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Carcinogenesis, 29, 944-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgn025
- Cook A, Pryer J, Shetty P (2000). The problem of accuracy in dietary surveys. Analysis of the over 65 UK national diet and nutrition survey. J Epidemiol Community Health, 54, 611-6. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.54.8.611
- Cook T, Rutishauser I, Seelig M, Australasian Food and Nutrition Monitoring Unit (2001). Comparable Data on Food and Nutrient Intake and Physical Measurements from the 1983, 1985 and 1995 National Nutrition Surveys, pp. 1-149. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
- Dai Q, Shu XO, Jin F, et al (2001). Population-based case-control study of soyfood intake and breast cancer risk in Shanghai. Br J Cancer, 85, 372-8. https://doi.org/10.1054/bjoc.2001.1873
- Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations University (1985). Energy and Protein Requirements. Report of a Joint Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series No. 724. Geneva: WHO.
- Goldberg GR, Black AE, Jebb SA, et al (1991). Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify underrecording. Eur J Clin Nutr, 45, 569-81.
- GonzALez CA, Torrent M, Agudo A, et al (1990). Hospital versus neighbourhood controls in the assessment of dietary risk factors. Int J epidemiol, 19, 354-61. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/19.2.354
- Greenland S (1997). In Concepts of validity in epidemiological research, pp. 417-1016. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Grimes DA, Schulz KF (2005). Compared to what? Finding controls for case-control studies. Lancet, 365, 1429-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66379-9
- Hsing AW, Sakoda LC, Rashid A, et al (2008). Variants in inflammation genes and the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones: a population-based study in China. Cancer Res, 68, 6442-52. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0444
- Hu S, Tang S, Liu Y, et al (2008). Reform of how health care is paid for in China: challenges and opportunities. Lancet, 372, 1846-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61368-9
- Inoue M, Tajima K, Hirose K, et al (1997). Epidemiological features of first-visit outpatients in Japan: comparison with general population and variation by sex, age, and season. J Clin Epidemiol, 50, 69-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(96)00297-1
- Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese academic of preventive medicine (1999). Food composition table (National representative values), 1st ed. Beijing: People's Health Press.
- James W, Schofield E (1990). Human Energy Requirements ? A Manual for Planners and Nutritionists. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Ji BT, Chow WH, Yang G, et al (1998). Dietary habits and stomach cancer in Shanghai, China. Int J Cancer, 76, 659-64. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19980529)76:5<659::AID-IJC8>3.0.CO;2-P
- Jian L, Binns CW, Lee AH (2006). Validity of a food-frequency questionnaire for elderly men in southeast China. Public Health Nutr, 9, 928-33.
- Johansson G, Wikman A, Ahren A-M, et al (2001). Undereporting of energy intake in repeated 24-hour recalls related to gender, age weight status, day of interview, educational level, reported food intake, smoking habits and area of living. Public Health Nutr, 4, 919-27.
- Kropp S, Becher H, Nieters A, et al (2001). Low-to-moderate alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk by age 50 years among women in Germany. Am J Epidemiol, 154, 624-34. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/154.7.624
- Li L, Zhang M, Holman CDJ (2011). Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals. BMC Med Res Methodol, 11, 167. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-167
- Livingstone MB, Black AE (2003). Markers of the validity of reported energy intake. J Nutr, 133, 895-920.
- Malagoli C, Vinceti M, Pellacani G, et al (2008). Diet and melanoma risk: effects of choice of hospital versus population controls. Tumori, 94, 669-73.
- Miettinen OS (1985). In Theoretical Epidemiology: Principles of Occurrence Research in Medicine, pp. 46-83. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
- Miettinen OS (1990). The concept of secondary base. J Clin Epidemiol, 43, 1017-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/0895-4356(90)90092-4
- Porta M, Greenland S, Last JM (2008). In A dictionary of epidemiology, 5th ed., pp. 53. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL (2008). Case-control studies. In Modern epidemiology, 3rd ed., pp. 111-27. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Shannon J, Ray R, Wu C, et al (2005). Food and botanical groupings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Shanghai, China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14, 81-90.
- Suzuki T, Matsuo K, Tsunoda N, et al (2008). Effect of soybean on breast cancer according to receptor status: a case-control study in Japan. Int J Cancer, 123, 1674-80. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23644
- Tao D, Hawkins L, Wang H, et al (2010). In Fixing the public hospital system in China, Vol. 2: Main report, pp. 8-20. Washington: World Bank.
- Wacholder S, Silverman DT, McLaughlin JK, et al (1992). Selection of controls in case-control studies. I principles; II types of controls; III design options. Am J Epidemiol, 135, 1019-50.
- Wang J, Kushner K, Frey JJ, et al (2007). Primary care reform in the Peoples' Republic of China: implications for training family physicians for the world's largest country. Fam Med, 39, 639-43.
- Whitemore AS, Wu-Willians AH, Lee M, et al (1990). Diet, physical activity and colorectal cancer among Chinese in North American and China. J Natl Cancer Inst, 82, 915-26. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/82.11.915
- Willett W (1998). Nutritional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Zhang M, Binns CW, Lee AH (2005). A quantitative food frequency questionnaire for women in southeast China: Development and reproducibility. Asia Pac J Public Health, 17, 29-35. https://doi.org/10.1177/101053950501700108
- Zhang M, Holman CDJ, Binns CW (2007). Intake of specific carotenoids and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Br J Nutr, 98, 187-93. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507690011
- Zhang M, Lee AH, Binns CW (2003). Physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a case-control study in China. Int J Cancer, 105, 838-43. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.11165
- Zhang M, Yang HJ, Holman CDJ (2009). Dietary intake of isoflavones and breast cancer risk by estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 118, 553-63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-009-0354-9
- Zhang M, Yang ZY, Binns CW, et al (2002). Diet and ovarian cancer risk: a case-control study in China. Br J Cancer, 86, 712-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6600085
- Dietary isoflavone intake is associated with a reduced risk of myelodysplastic syndromes vol.114, pp.12, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114515003931
- Diet and risk of adult leukemia: a multicenter case–control study in China vol.26, pp.8, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-015-0608-2
- Green tea consumption and glutathione S-transferases genetic polymorphisms on the risk of adult leukemia vol.56, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-1104-x