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Prevalence of Depression in Breast Cancer Survivors: a Systematic Review of Observational Studies

  • Zainal, Nor Zuraida ;
  • Nik-Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei ;
  • Baharudin, Azlin ;
  • Sabki, Zuraida Ahmad ;
  • Ng, Chong Guan
  • Published : 2013.04.30

Abstract

Background: Depression is common in breast cancer patients. The aim of this paper was to make a systematic review of its prevalence and associated factors oin breast cancer survivors. Materials and Methods: An extensive systematic electronic review (PUBMED, CINAHL, PsyINFO and Ovid) and handsearch were carried out to retrieve published articles up to November 2012, using Depression OR Dysthymia AND (Cancer OR Tumor OR Neoplasms as the keywords. Information about the design of the studies, measuring scale, characteristics of the participants, prevalence of depression and its associated factors from the included studies were extracted and summarized. Results: We identified 32 eligible studies that recruited 10,826 breast cancer survivors. Most were cross-sectional or prospective designed. The most frequent instrument used to screen depression was the Center for Epidemiological Studies for Depression (CES-D, n=11 studies) followed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, n=6 studies) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, n=6 studies). CES-D returned about similar prevalence of depression (median=22%, range=13-56%) with BDI (median=22%, range=17-48%) but higher than HADS (median=10%, range=1-22%). Depression was associated with several socio-demographic variables, cancer-related factors, treatment-related factors, subject psychological factors, lifestyle factors, social support and quality of life. Conclusions: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for depression so that detection of associated factors is important in clinical practice.

Keywords

Prevalence;depression;breast;cancer;survivors;risk factors

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