Diabetes Mellitus Increases the Risk of Bladder Cancer: An Updated Meta-analysis

  • Yang, Xiao-Qing (Tianjin Institute of Urology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University) ;
  • Xu, Chen (Department of Colorectal Surgery, Nankai University Affiliated Hospital) ;
  • Sun, Yan (Tianjin Institute of Urology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University) ;
  • Han, Rui-Fa (Tianjin Institute of Urology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University)
  • Published : 2013.04.30


Purpose: Studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for bladder cancer; however, not all evidence supports this conclusion. The aim of this meta-analysis was to collate and evaluate all primary observational studies investigating the risk of bladder cancer associated with DM. Methods: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies that estimated the association of DM and bladder cancer. Summary effect estimates were derived using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Results: A total of 23 studies (8 case-control studies, 15 cohort studies) including 643,683 DM and 4,819,656 non-DM cases were identified. Analysis of all studies showed that DM was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer compared with non-DM overall (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.32-2.13). Analysis of subgroups demonstrated this to be the case in both case-control studies (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.28-1.97, $I^2$=58%) and cohort studies (RR=1.70, 95% CI 1.23-2.33, $I^2$=96%). There was no gender difference in DM-associated bladder cancer risk. Bladder cancer risk was increased in Asia and the North America region, but not in Europe. Furthermore, DM-associated bladder cancer risk was obviously higher in Asia than North America and Europe or in those with Caucasian ethnicity. With extension of follow-up time, the bladder cancer risk was not increased for the patients with DM. Conclusions: This meta-analysis provided further evidence supporting theDM association with a significantly higher risk of bladder cancer obtained from observational studies.


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