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Genotoxicity and Interference with Cell Cycle Activities by an Ethanolic Extract from Thai Plumbago indica Roots in Human Lymphocytes in vitro

  • Thitiorul, Sumon (Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University) ;
  • Ratanavalachai, Treetip (Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University) ;
  • Tanuchit, Sermkiat (Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University) ;
  • Itharat, Arunporn (Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University) ;
  • Sakpakdeejaroen, Intouch (Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University)
  • Published : 2013.04.30

Abstract

In Thai traditional medicine, Plumbago indica or Jetamul-Pleung-Dang in Thai is known to have health benefit especially for anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antitumor activities. However, the mechanisms of its action are still uncertain. One of which might be genotoxic effects. In the present study, we investigated the genotoxicity of an ethanolic extract of Plumbago indica root (EEPIR) by sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in human lymphocytes. Results have shown that all treatments with EEPIR ($12.5-100{\mu}g/ml$) could induce cell cycle delay as shown by significant increase in the number of metaphase cells in the first cell cycle but neither in the second nor the third cell cycle. Only at concentrations of 25, 50, and $100{\mu}g/ml$ were SCE levels significantly increased above that of the control (p<0.05). EEPIR at a concentration of $500{\mu}g/ml$ induced cell death as few mitotic cells were shown. Accordingly, EEPIR ($25-100{\mu}g/ml$) is genotoxic in human lymphocytes and cytotoxic at concentrations of ${\geq}500{\mu}g/ml$ in vitro. Therefore, these activities of the EEPIR could serve its potential therapeutic effects, especially as an anticancer agent. Further study of EEPIR in vivo is now needed to support this in vitro evidence.

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