- Volume 14 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Survey on Knowledge and Attitudes Related to the Relation between Tobacco, Alcohol Abuse and Cancer in the Northern State of Sudan
- Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim (Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Hail)
- Published : 2013.04.30
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of tobacco smoking, toombak dipping and alcohol consumption as risk factors for cancer in the adult population of the northern state of Sudan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2010, covering 963 adults, was performed. Result: Only 207 had responded, and the male female prevalence was 20.8% and 0.73%. Out of 207 respondents, 29.5% had smoked tobacco in their lifetime, 38% were toombak dippers, while 14% were consumers of alcoholic beverages. Conclusions: The prevalence of toombak dipping was higher than tobacco smoking among the adult population in the northern state of Sudan. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies was found to suffer from major obstacles since these habits are considered as social stigma. Appreciation of the full impact of smoking on population health will definitely make a major contribution to improvement of the poor public health situation in Sudan.
- Ahmed HG, Mahgoob RM (2007). Impact of toombak dipping in the etiology of oral cancer: gender-exclusive hazard in the Sudan. J Cancer Res and Therapeutics, 3, 127-30. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.34696
- Begg S, Vos T, Barker B, et al (2007). The burden of disease and injury in Australia 2003. PHE 82. Canberra: AIHW.
- Bobak M, Jha P, Son N, Jarvis M (2000). In: Oxford medical publications. Jha P, Chaloupka F, editor. Oxford;New York: Oxford University Press. Poverty and smoking; p. 41.
- Elbeshir EI, Abeen HA, Idris AM, Abbas K (1989). Snuff dipping and oral cancer in Sudan: a retrospective study. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 27, 243-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/0266-4356(89)90152-6
- Flint AJ, Novotny TE (1997). Poverty status and cigarette smoking prevalence and cessation in the United States, 1983-1993: the independent risk of being poor. Tob Control, 6, 14-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.6.1.14
- Idris AM, Ahmed HM, Mukhtar BI, Gadir AF, el-Beshir EI (1995). Descriptive Epidemiology of oral Neoplasms in Sudan 1970-1985 and the role of Toombak. Int J Cancer, 61, 155-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.2910610202
- Idris AM, Ibrahim YE, Warnakulasuriya KA, et al (1998). Toombak use and cigarette smoking in the Sudan: estimates of prevalence in the Nile state. Prev Med, 27, 597-603. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1998.0331
- Idris AM, Prokopczyk B, Hoffmann D (1994). Toombak: A major risk factor for cancer of the oral cavity in Sudan. Prev Med, 23, 832-9. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1994.1141
- Laaksonen M, Rahkonen O, Karvonen S, Lahelma E (2005). Socioeconomic status and smoking: analysing inequalities with multiple indicators. Eur J Public Health, 15, 262-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cki115
- Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJ (2006). Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet, 367, 1747-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68770-9
- Office of the Surgeon General (2004). National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (U.S.) The health consequences of smoking a report of the Surgeon General. [Atlanta, Ga.]: U.S. Public Health Service, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/ smokingconsequences (accessed Jun 2011).
- Reijneveld SA (1998). The impact of individual and area characteristics on urban socioeconomic differences in health and smoking. Int J Epidemiol, 27, 33-40. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/27.1.33
- Santanu G, Amrita S, Shuvankar M (2012). Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Male Adults at a Slum in Kolkata, India. J Health Popul Nutr, 30, 73-81.
- WHO (2002). The world health report 2002-reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva: World Health Organization; p. 250.
- Wipfli H, Samet JM (2009). Global economic and health benefits of tobacco control: part 1. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 86, 263-71. https://doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2009.93
- World Health Organization (WHO) (2008)., Research for International Tobacco Control. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: the MPOWER package. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/tobacco/ mpower/mpower_report_full_2008.
- Awareness of Risk Factors for Cancer among Omani adults- A Community Based Study vol.15, pp.13, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.13.5401
- Association of Cigarette Prices with the Prevalence of Smoking in Korean University Students: Analysis of Effects of the Tobacco Control Policy vol.16, pp.13, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.13.5531
- Patterns of Esophageal Cancer in the National Cancer Institute at the University of Gezira, in Gezira State, Sudan, in 1999-2012 vol.16, pp.15, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6481
- Current tobacco use and its associated factors among adults in a country with comprehensive ban on tobacco: findings from the nationally representative STEPS survey, Bhutan, 2014 vol.14, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-016-0098-9
- School workers’ knowledge, attitude and behaviour related to use of Toombak: a cross sectional study from Khartoum state, Sudan vol.17, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0460-8
- Perception of health professions students of their role model status in Toombak cessation: A cross-sectional study from Sudan vol.14, pp.2, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210837