- Volume 14 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Utility of VEGF and sVEGFR-1 in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid for Differential Diagnosis of Primary Lung Cancer
- Cao, Chao (Department of Respiratory Medicine, the Affiliated Hospital of School of Medicine, Ningbo University) ;
- Sun, Shi-Fang (Department of Respiratory Medicine, the Affiliated Hospital of School of Medicine, Ningbo University) ;
- Lv, Dan (Department of Respiratory Medicine, the Affiliated Hospital of School of Medicine, Ningbo University) ;
- Chen, Zhong-Bo (Department of Respiratory Medicine, the Affiliated Hospital of School of Medicine, Ningbo University) ;
- Ding, Qun-Li (Department of Respiratory Medicine, the Affiliated Hospital of School of Medicine, Ningbo University) ;
- Deng, Zai-Chun (Department of Respiratory Medicine, the Affiliated Hospital of School of Medicine, Ningbo University)
- Published : 2013.04.30
Published data have shown that the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) in plasma and pleural effusion might be usefulness for lung cancer diagnosis. Here, we performed a prospective study to investigate the utility of VEGF and sVEGFR-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for differential diagnosis of primary lung cancer. A total of 56 patients with solitary pulmonary massed by chest radiograph or CT screening were enrolled in this study. BALF and plasma samples were obtained from all patients and analyzed for VEGF and sVEGFR-1 using a commercially available sandwich ELISA kit. The results showed that the levels of VEGF in BALF were significantly higher in patients with a malignant pulmonary mass compared with patients with a benign mass (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference of sVEGFR-1 in BALF was found between malignant and non-malignant groups (P = 0.43). With a cut-off value of 214 pg/ml, VEGF showed a sensitivity and specificity of 81.8% and 84.2%, respectively, in predicting the malignant nature of a solitary pulmonary mass. Our study suggests that VEGF is significantly increased in BALF among patients with lung cancer than in benign diseases. Measurement of VEGF in BALF might be helpful for differential diagnosis of primary lung cancer.
- Bugdayci G, Kaplan T, Sezer S, et al (2006). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Exp Oncol, 28, 169-71.
- Cao C, Zhang YM, Wang R, et al (2011). Excision repair cross complementation group 1 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Chin Med J (Engl), 124, 2203-8.
- Charalabopoulos K, Karakosta A, Bablekos G, et al (2007). CEA levels in serum and BAL in patients suffering from lung cancer: correlation with individuals presenting benign lung lesions and healthy volunteers. Med Oncol, 24, 219-25. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02698043
- Cremades MJ, Men ndez R, Pastor A, Llopis R, Aznar J (1998). Diagnostic value of cytokeratin fragment 19 (CYFRA 21-1) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in lung cancer. Respir Med, 92, 766-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0954-6111(98)90010-5
- Denizot Y, Leguyader A, Cornu E, et al (2007). Release of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1) during coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiothorac Surg, 2, 38. https://doi.org/10.1186/1749-8090-2-38
- Domaga_a-Kulawik J, Hoser G, Safianowska A, Grubek-Jaworska H, Chazan R (2006). Elevated TGF-beta1 concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with primary lung cancer. Arch Immunol Ther Exp, 54, 143-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00005-006-0016-0
- Ellis JR, Gleeson FV (2001). Lung cancer screening. Br J Radiol, 74, 478-85. https://doi.org/10.1259/bjr.74.882.740478
- Emad A, Emad V (2008). The value of BAL fluid LDH level in differentiating benign from malignant solitary pulmonary nodules. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 134, 489-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00432-007-0311-0
- Ferrara N (2002). VEGF and the quest for tumour angiogenesis factors. Nat Rev Cancer, 2, 795-803. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc909
- Ferrara N, Davis-Smyth T (1997). The biology of vascular endothelial growth factor. Endocr Rev, 18, 4-25. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.18.1.4
- Fiorelli A, Morgillo F, Fasano M, et al (2013). The value of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 pathway in diagnosing indeterminate pleural effusion. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg, 16, 263-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivs466
- Hooper CE, Elvers KT, Welsh GI, Millar AB, Maskell NA (2012). VEGF and sVEGFR-1 in malignant pleural effusions: association with survival and pleurodesis outcomes. Lung Cancer, 77, 443-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2012.03.006
- Ilhan N, Ilhan N, Deveci F (2004). Functional significance of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor (receptor-1) in various lung cancer types. Clin Biochem, 37, 840-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2004.03.012
- Karahalli E, Yilmaz A, T rker H, Ozvaran K (2001). Usefulness of various diagnostic techniques during fiberoptic bronchoscopy of endoscopically visible lung cancer: should cytologic examinations be performed routinely. Respiration, 68, 611-4. https://doi.org/10.1159/000050581
- Kishiro I, Kato S, Fuse D, Yoshida T, Machida S, Kaneko N (2002). Clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with primary lung cancer. Respirology, 7, 93-8. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1843.2002.00376.x
- Marcus PM (2001).Lung cancer screening: an update. J Clin Oncol, 19, S83-6.
- Mazzone P, Jain P, Arroliga AC, Matthay RA (2002). Bronchoscopy and needle biopsy techniques for diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Clin Chest Med, 23, 137-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-5231(03)00065-0
- Ohta Y, Ohta N, Tamura M, et al (2002). Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in airways of patients with lung cancer: a possible diagnostic tool of responsive angiogenic status on the host side. Chest, 121, 1624-7. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.121.5.1624
- Shibuya M (2011). Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Its Receptor (VEGFR) Signaling in Angiogenesis: A Crucial Target for Anti-and Pro-Angiogenic Therapies. Genes Cancer, 2, 1097-105. https://doi.org/10.1177/1947601911423031
- Sun SF, Huang DB, Cao C, Deng ZC (2013). Polymorphism of VEGF-460C/T associated with the risk and clinical characteristics of lung cancer in Chinese population. Med Oncol, 30, 410. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12032-012-0410-x
- Swidzi_ska E, Ossoli_ska M, Naumnik W, et al (2004). Circulating VEGF and its soluble receptor sVEGFR-1 in patients with lung cancer. Pneumonol Alergol Pol, 72, 389-94.
- Tamura M, Ohta Y, Nakamura H, Oda M, Watanabe G (2002). Diagnostic value of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor as a tumor marker in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Int J Biol Markers, 17, 275-9.
- Wang Z, Chen Y, Li X, et al (2012). Expression of VEGF-C/ VEGFR-3 in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and its significance for lymphatic metastasis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 27-31. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.1.027
- Wingo PA, Ries LA, Giovino GA, et al (1999). Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973-1996, with a special section on lung cancer and tobacco smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst, 91, 675-90. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/91.8.675
- Molecular Markers for Patients with Thymic Malignancies: not Feasible at Present? vol.15, pp.8, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.8.3457
- CHRNA5 rs16969968 Polymorphism Association with Risk of Lung Cancer - Evidence from 17,962 Lung Cancer Cases and 77,216 Control Subjects vol.16, pp.15, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.15.6685
- Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Family in Cancer vol.16, pp.5, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.5.1677
- Plasma levels and diagnostic utility of VEGF, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in the diagnostics of breast cancer patients vol.22, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/1354750X.2016.1252955