Anti-obesity effects of black ginseng extract in high fat diet-fed mice

  • Lee, Mi Ra (Daedeok Bio Corporation Research and Development center) ;
  • Kim, Byung Chan (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kim, Ran (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Oh, Hyun In (Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University) ;
  • Kim, Hyun Kyoung (Daedeok Bio Corporation Research and Development center) ;
  • Choi, Kang Ju (Daedeok Bio Corporation Research and Development center) ;
  • Sung, Chang Keun (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University)
  • Received : 2013.02.25
  • Accepted : 2013.04.29
  • Published : 2013.07.15


Black ginseng is produced by a repeated steaming process. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of black ginseng ethanol extract (BG-EE) in high fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Two groups were fed either a normal control (NC) diet or a HF diet (45% kcal fat). The other three groups were given a HF diet supplemented with 1% BG-EE, 3% BG-EE, and 5% BG-EE for 12 wk. The anti-obesity effects of the BG-EE supplement on body weight, the development of fat mass, and lipid mechanisms were assessed in obese mice. HF-induced hyperlipidemia, fat accumulation in the liver, and white adipose tissues were reduced after BG-EE supplementation. Total fecal weight and the amount of fecal fat excretion also were increased after BG-EE supplementation. These results suggest that BG-EE may be useful to ameliorate HF-induced obesity through the strong inhibition of fat digestion.


Panax ginseng;Black ginseng;High fat diet;Obesity;Hyperlipidemia


  1. Muwalla MM, Abuirmmeileh NM. Suppression of avian hepatic cholesterogenesis by dietary ginseng. J Nutr Biochem 1991;1:518-521.
  2. Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar HP, Becker K. The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review. Br J Nutr 2002;88:587-605.
  3. Attele AS, Zhou YP, Xie JT, Wu JA, Zhang L, Dey L, Pugh W, Rue PA, Polonsky KS, Yuan CS. Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identifi cation of an effective component. Diabetes 2002;51:1851-1858.
  4. Karu N, Reifen R, Kerem Z. Weight gain reduction in mice fed Panax ginseng saponin, a pancreatic lipase inhibitor. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:2824-2828
  5. Kim KT, Yoo KM, Lee JW, Eom SH, Hwang IK, Lee CY. Protective effect of steamed American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on V79-4 cells induced by oxidative stress. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;111:443-450.
  6. Bray GA. A concise review on the therapeutics of obesity. Nutrition 2000;16:953-960.
  7. Leonhardt M, Hrupka B, Langhans W. New approaches in the pharmacological treatment of obesity. Eur J Nutr 1999;38:1-13.
  8. Woods SC, D'Alessio DA, Tso P, Rushing PA, Clegg DJ, Benoit SC, Gotoh K, Liu M, Seeley RJ. Consumption of a high-fat diet alters the homeostatic regulation of energy balance. Physiol Behav 2004;83:573-578.
  9. Portillo MP, Simon E, Garcia-Calonge MA, Del Barrio AS. Effects of high-fat diet on lypolisis in isolated adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous WAT. Eur J Nutr 1999;38:177-182.
  10. Heck AM, Yanovski JA, Calis KA. Orlistat, a new lipase inhibitor for the management of obesity. Pharmacotherapy 2000;20:270-279.
  11. Coon JT, Ernst E. Panax ginseng: a systematic review of adverse effects and drug interactions. Drug Saf 2002;25:323-344.
  12. Kim JH, Hahm DH, Yang DC, Kim JH, Lee HJ, Shim I. Effect of crude saponin of Korean red ginseng on high-fat diet-induced obesity in the rat. J Pharmacol Sci 2005;97:124-131 .
  13. Park DM, Lee HH, Yoon MC. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) prevent obesity by inhibiting angiogenesis in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2013;53:402-408.
  14. Lee YS, Cha BY, Yamaguchi K, Choi SS, Yonezawa T, Teruya T, Nagai K, Woo JT. Effects of Korean white ginseng extracts on obesity in high fat diet-induced obese mice. Cytotechnology 2010;62:367-376.
  15. Hwang JT, Lee MS, Kim HJ, Sung MJ, Kim HY, Kim MS, Kwon DY. Antiobesity effect of ginsenoside Rg3 involves the AMPK and PPAR-$\gamma$ signal pathways. Phytother Res 2009;23:262-266.
  16. Hwang JT, Kim SH, Lee MS, Kim SH, Yang HJ, Kim MJ, Kim HS, Ha J, Kim MS, Kwon DY. Anti-obesity effects of ginsenoside Rh2 are associated with the activation of AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3–L1 adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007;364:1002-1008.
  17. Paccaud F, Schluter-Fasmeyer V, Wietlisbach V, Bovet P. Dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity: an assessment in three general populations. J Clin Epidemiol 2000;53:393-400
  18. Kim SH, Park KS. Effects of Panax ginseng extract on lipid metabolism in human. Pharmacol Res 2003;48:511-513.
  19. Neves RH, Alencar AC, Aguila MB, Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA, Machado Silva JR, Gomes DC. Somatic, biochemical and hepatic alterations in wild type mice chronically fed high fat diet. Int J Morphol 2006;24:625-632.
  20. Catta-Preta M, Mendonca LS, Fraulob-Aquino J, Aguila MB, Mandarim-de-Lacerda CA. Acritical analysis of three quantitative methods of assessment of hepatic steatosis in liver biopsies. Virchows Archiv 2011;459:477-485.
  21. Kang KS, Yamabe N, Kim HY, Park JH, Yokozawa T. Therapeutic potential of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg(3) against streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal damage in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2008;591:266-272.
  22. Lee MR, Oh CJ, Li Z, Li JJ, Wang CY, Wang Z, Gu LJ, Lee SH, Lee JI, Lim BO et al. Evaluation of the oral acute toxicity of black ginseng in rats. J Ginseng Res2011;25:39-44.
  23. Lee HH, Park DM, Yoon MC. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) prevents obesity by inhibiting angiogenesis in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2013;53:402-408.
  24. Folch J, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley GH. A simple method for the isolation and purifi cation of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem1957;226:497-506.
  25. Uchiyama M, Mihara M. Determination of malonaldehyde precursor in tissues by thiobarbituric acid. Anal Biochem 1978;86:271-278.
  26. Han KH, Choe SC, Kim HS, Sohn DW, Nam KY, Oh BH, Lee MM, Park YB, Choi YS, Seo JD. Effect of red ginseng on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension. Am J Chin Med 1998;26:199-209.
  27. Inoue M, Wu CZ, Dou DQ, Chen YJ, Ogihara Y. Lipoprotein lipase activation by red ginseng saponins in hyperlipidemia model animals. Phytomedicine 1999;6:257-265.
  28. Kim JH, Hahm DH, Yang DC, Lee HJ, Shim I. Effect of crude saponin of Korean red ginseng on high-fat diet-induced obesity in the rat. J Pharmacol Sci 2005;97:124-131.
  29. Kim JY, Nolte LA, Hansen PA, Han DH, Ferguson K, Thompson PA, Holloszy JO. High-fat diet induced muscle insulin resistance: relationship to visceral fat mass. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2000;279:R2057-R2065.
  30. Sidhu GS, Oakenfull DG. A mechanism for the hypocholesterolaemic activity of saponins. British J Nutr 1986;55:643-649.
  31. Hil1 JO, Hauptman J, Anderson JW, Fujioka K, O'Neil PM, Smith DK, Zavoral JH, Aronne LJ. Orlistat, a lipase inhibitor, for weight maintenance after conventional dieting: a l-y study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;9:1108-1116.

Cited by

  1. Detoxifying effect of fermented black ginseng on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells vol.34, pp.6, 2014,
  2. Protopanaxatriol, a novel PPARγ antagonist from Panax ginseng, alleviates steatosis in mice vol.4, pp.1, 2015,
  3. Direct Infusion MS-Based Lipid Profiling Reveals the Pharmacological Effects of Compound K-Reinforced Ginsenosides in High-Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice vol.63, pp.11, 2015,
  4. Effect of White, Red and Black Ginseng on Physicochemical Properties and Ginsenosides vol.70, pp.2, 2015,
  5. Black Ginseng Extract Counteracts Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice vol.11, pp.1, 2016,
  6. Effects of various ginsenosides and ginseng root and ginseng berry on the activity of Pancreatic lipase vol.26, pp.3, 2017,
  7. Anti-wrinkle effect of fermented black ginseng on human fibroblasts vol.39, pp.3, 2017,
  8. Natural Phenol Polymers: Recent Advances in Food and Health Applications vol.6, pp.2, 2017,
  9. KP-3-fermented ginseng in mice fed a high fat diet vol.9, pp.11, 2018,
  10. on Obesity in Animal Models: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis vol.2018, pp.1741-4288, 2018,