Variation of Solar, Interplanetary and Geomagnetic Parameters during Solar Cycles 21-24

Oh, Suyeon;Kim, Bogyeong

  • Received : 2013.04.11
  • Accepted : 2013.05.06
  • Published : 2013.06.15


The length of solar cycle 23 has been prolonged up to about 13 years. Many studies have speculated that the solar cycle 23/24 minimum will indicate the onset of a grand minimum of solar activity, such as the Maunder Minimum. We check the trends of solar (sunspot number, solar magnetic fields, total solar irradiance, solar radio flux, and frequency of solar X-ray flare), interplanetary (interplanetary magnetic field, solar wind and galactic cosmic ray intensity), and geomagnetic (Ap index) parameters (SIG parameters) during solar cycles 21-24. Most SIG parameters during the period of the solar cycle 23/24 minimum have remarkably low values. Since the 1970s, the space environment has been monitored by ground observatories and satellites. Such prevalently low values of SIG parameters have never been seen. We suggest that these unprecedented conditions of SIG parameters originate from the weakened solar magnetic fields. Meanwhile, the deep 23/24 solar cycle minimum might be the portent of a grand minimum in which the global mean temperature of the lower atmosphere is as low as in the period of Dalton or Maunder minimum.


solar cyclic variation;solar activity;solar magnetic field;23/24 solar cycle minimum


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Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST)