Open-Cell Rigid Polyurethane Foam Using Reactive Cell Opening Agents

반응성 기포개방제를 이용한 개방기포형 경질우레탄폼

  • Ahn, WonSool (Department of Chemical Engineering, Keimyung University)
  • 안원술 (계명대학교 화학공학과)
  • Received : 2013.04.22
  • Accepted : 2013.05.09
  • Published : 2013.05.31


Cell opening characteristics dependent on the cell openers for the conventional formulation of a closed-cell polyurethane foam (PUF) was studied using 1-butanol and lithium salt of 12-hydroxystearic acid (Li-12HSA) as the reactive cell opening agents. While cell openining content of only 10.5 % was obtained for the sample with 4 phr of 1-butanol as the single reactive cell opener, that of 98.0% could be obtained for the sample with 2 phr of Li-12HSA as the reactive co-cell opener. As the results, it showed that a fully open-cell rigid PUF could be obtained by introducing a novel reactive cell opener, having a functional group able to form a bulky side-chain on the urethane networks, without severe loss of mechanical properties of the closed-cell PUF like cell size, bulk density, and thermal conductivity.


Open-cell;Rigid polyurethane foam;Reactive cell opener


  1. K. Yoshida, "Polyurethane and Related Foams", CRC Press, FL, Ch. 4, pp. 65-96, 2007.
  2. U. Henri, "Chemistry and Technology of Isocyanate", John Wiley & Sons, N. Y., Ch. 2, pp. 469-481, 1996.
  3. Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd, "Production and Use of Open Cell Rigid Polyurethane Foam", U.S Patent No. 5,350,777, 1999.
  4. X. D. Zhang, H. T. Davis, and C. W. Macosko, "A New Cell Opening Mechanism in Flexible Polyurethane Foam", J. Cellular Plas., 35, pp. 458-476, 1999.
  5. Samsung Electonics Co. Ltd., "Open Cell Rigid Polyurethane Foam and Method for Producing the Same and Method for Making Vacuum Insulation Panel Using Same", U.S Patent No. 5,889,067, 1999.
  6. T. Heinemann and W. Klan, "Fine Cell, Water -Blown Rigid Polyurethane Foams", U.S 2005/0014857 A1, 2005.
  7. J. Grimminger and K. Muha, "Silicone Surfactants for Pentane Blown Rigid Foam", Journal of Cellular Plastics, 31(1), pp. 48-72, 1995. DOI:
  8. J. Grimminger, "New Additive Solutions for Rigid Polyurethane and Polyisocyanurate. Lamination Foams", Proceedings of the 1999 RAPRA Catalysts and Surfactants in Polyurethane Foams Conference, 18(3), pp. 175-195, 1999.
  9. S. N. Singh, "Blowing Agents for Polyurethane Foams", ChemTec Publishing, Toronto, Ch. 4, pp. 11-22, 2002.
  10. G. Oertel, ed., "Polyurethane Handbook", 2nd ed, Hanser Publishers, N. Y., Ch. 6., pp. 247-328, 1993.
  11. M. Szycher, "Szycher's Handbook of Polyurethanes", CRC Press, N. Y., Ch. 8, pp. 1-46, 1999.
  12. D. Randall and S. Lee, ed., " The polyurethanes book", John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., N. Y., Ch. 15, pp. 229-244, 2002.