The Four Color Algorithm

4-색 알고리즘

  • Lee, Sang-Un (Dept. of Multimedia Eng., Gangneung-Wonju National University)
  • 이상운 (강릉원주대학교 멀티미디어공학과)
  • Received : 2013.01.07
  • Accepted : 2013.03.26
  • Published : 2013.05.31


This paper proposes an algorithm that proves an NP-complete 4-color theorem by employing a linear time complexity where $O(n)$. The proposed algorithm accurately halves the vertex set V of the graph $G=(V_1,E_1)$ into the Maximum Independent Set (MIS) $\bar{C_1}$ and the Minimum Vertex Cover Set $C_1$. It then assigns the first color to $\bar{C_1}$ and the second to $\bar{C_2}$, which, along with $C_2$, is halved from the connected graph $G=(V_2,E_2)$, a reduced set of the remaining vertices. Subsequently, the third color is assigned to $\bar{C_3}$, which, along with $C_3$, is halved from the connected graph $G=(V_3,E_3)$, a further reduced set of the remaining vertices. Lastly, denoting $C_3$ as $\bar{C_4}$, the algorithm assigns the forth color to $\bar{C_4}$. The algorithm has successfully obtained the chromatic number ${\chi}(G)=4$ with 100% probability, when applied to two actual map and two planar graphs. The proposed "four color algorithm", therefore, could be employed as a general algorithm to determine four-color for planar graphs.


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