DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

  • Nejad, J. Ghassemi (College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Hosseindoust, A. (Department of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources) ;
  • Shoae, A. (Department of Zoology, University of Otago) ;
  • Ghorbani, B. (Department of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources) ;
  • Lee, B.H. (College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Oskoueian, E. (Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia) ;
  • Hajilari, D. (Department of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources) ;
  • Amouzmehr, A. (Department of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources) ;
  • Lohakare, J.D. (College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Sung, K.I. (College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University)
  • Received : 2012.12.19
  • Accepted : 2013.02.24
  • Published : 2013.06.01

Abstract

To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of $40.5{\pm}2.4$ kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk) and post-weaning (8 wk) was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (p<0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was the highest among all treatments in pre-weaning period (p<0.05). Dry matter intake (DMI) at weaning and total DMI was higher in that calves received 800 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p<0.05). Calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter were weaned earlier (p<0.05) and showed lower milk consumption (kg, DM) compared with other treatments whereas no significant difference was observed between calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter (p>0.05). Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p<0.05). No differences were observed in acid detergent and neutral detergent fiber digestibility among all treatments (p>0.05).Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05). Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM) intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05).

Keywords

Holstein Dairy Calves;Levels of Starter;Health;Performance

References

  1. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 1990. 13th edition. Pubic. By AOAC, P.O.B. Box 54, Washington, DC, USA.
  2. Coverdale, J. A., H. D. Tyler, J. D. Quigley and J. A. Brumm. 2004. Effect of various levels of forage and form of diet on rumen development and growth in calves. J. Dairy Sci. 87:2554-2562. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73380-9
  3. Davis, C. L. and J. K. Drackley. 1998. Development, nutrition and management of the young calf. First ed. USA: Iowa state university press.
  4. Franklin, T., D. M. Amaral-Phillips, J. A. Jackson, and A. A. Campbell. 2003. Health and performance of Holstein calves that suckled or were hand-fed colostrum and were fed one of three physical forms of starter. J. Dairy Sci. 86:2145-2153. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73804-1
  5. Greenwood, R. H., J. L. Morrill and E. C. Titgemeyer. 1997. Using dry feed intake as a percentage of initial body weight as a weaning criterion. J. Dairy Sci. 80:2542-2546. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76208-8
  6. Huber, J. T., A. G. Silva, O. F. Campos and C. M. Mathieu. 1984. Influence of feeding different amounts of milk on performance, health, and absorption capability of baby calves. J. Dairy Sci. 67:2957-2963. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(84)81659-8
  7. Larson, L. L., F. G. Owen, J. L. Albright, R. D. Appelman, R. C. Lamb and L. D. Muller. 1977. Guidelines toward more uniformity in measuring and reporting calf experimental data. J. Dairy Sci. 60:989-991 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(77)83975-1
  8. Leaver, J. D. and N. H. Yarrow. 1972. Rearing of dairy cattle 2. Weaning calves according to their concentrate intake. Anim. Prod. 14:161-165. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100010837
  9. Luchini, N. D., S. F. Lane and D. K. Combs. 1991. Evaluation of starter diet crude protein level and feeding regimen for calves weaned at 26 d of age. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3949-3955. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78589-5
  10. Morrill, J. L. 1995. The calf: birth to 12 weeks. 1992. "Large Dairy Herd Management". (Ed. H. H. Van Horn and C. J. Wilcox). American Dairy Science Association, Savoy. 401-410.
  11. Quigley, J. D., K. R. Martin, D. A. Bemis, L. N. D. Potgieter, C. R. Reinemeyer, B. W. Rohrbach, H. H. Dowlen and K. C. Lamar. 1995. Effects of housing and colostrums feeding on serum immunoglobulins, growth, and fecal scores of Jersey calves. J. Dairy Sci. 78:893-901. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76703-0
  12. SAS: 1989-1996, SAS Institute Incorporation, Cary, NC, USA.
  13. Abdelgadir, I. E. O., J. L. Morrill and J. J. Higgins. 1996. Effect of roasted soybeans and corn on performance and ruminal and blood metabolites of dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 79:465-474. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76387-7
  14. Anderson, K. L., T. G. Nagaraja and J. L. Morrill. 1987. Ruminal metabolic development in calves weaned conventionally or early. J. Dairy Sci. 70:1000-1005. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80105-4
  15. Appleman, R. D. and F. G. Owen. 1975. Breeding, housing, and feeding management. J. Dairy Sci. 58:447-464. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(75)84588-7
  16. Arrayet, J. L., A. M. Oberbauer, T. R. Famula, I. Garnett, J. W. Oltjen, J. Imhoof, M. E. Kehrli, Jr. and T. W. Graham. 2002. Growth of Holstein calves from birth to 90 days: The influence of dietary zinc and BLAD status. J. Anim. Sci. 80:545-552.

Cited by

  1. Fatty acid profile of meat, diurnal changes in volatile fatty acids, rumen fluid parameters, and growth performance in Korean native (Hanwoo) steers fed high- and low-forage diets supplemented with chromium-methionine vol.45, pp.8, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-92902016000800009
  2. Behavioral and physiological changes during heat stress in Corriedale ewes exposed to water deprivation vol.59, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40781-017-0140-x
  3. Effects of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration pH, ruminal fermentation and performance of growing Holstein-Zebu cross steers vol.88, pp.9, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12797
  4. Blood hormone profiles, physiological variables, and behavioral criteria in Corriedale ewes fed different TMR moisture levels during thermal–humidity exposure pp.1744-4179, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/09291016.2017.1362095