- Volume 8 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
The Design of an Optimal Demand Response Controller Under Real Time Electricity Pricing
- Jin, Young Gyu (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University) ;
- Choi, Tae-Seop (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University) ;
- Park, Sung Chan (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University) ;
- Yoon, Yong Tae (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University)
- Received : 2012.02.22
- Accepted : 2012.11.05
- Published : 2013.05.01
The use of a demand response controller is necessary for electric devices to effectively respond to time varying price signals and to achieve the benefits of cost reduction. This paper describes a new formulation with the form of constrained optimization for designing an optimal demand response controller. It is demonstrated that constrained optimization is a better approach for the demand response controller, in terms of the ambiguity of device operation and the practicality of implementation of the optimal control law. This paper also proposes a design scheme to construct a demand response controller that is useful when a system controller is already adapted or optimized for the system. The design separates the demand response function from the original system control function while leaving the system control law unchanged. The proposed formulation is simulated and compared to the system with simple dynamics. The effects of the constraints, the system characteristics and the electricity price are examined further.
Demand response;Real time pricing;Optimal control;Dynamic programming
- S. -J. Kim and G. B. Giannakis, "Efficient and Scalable Demand Response for the Smart Power Grid," in International Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing, 2011.
- N. Lu and D. P. Chassin, "A State-Queueing Model of Thermostatically Controlled Appliances," IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 1666-1673, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2004.831700
- D. P. Bertsekas, Dynamic Programming and Optimal Control: Athena Scientific, 1995.
- A. I. Cohen, C. C. Wang, "An optimization Method for Load Management Scheduling," IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 612-618, 1988. https://doi.org/10.1109/59.192913
- H. T. Yang and K. Y. Huang, "Direct load control using fuzzy dynamic programming," IEE Proc. Generation, Transmission & Distribution, Vol. 146, No. 3, pp. 294-300, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-gtd:19990317
- E. K. Burke and G. Kendall, Search Methodologies: Springer, 2005, p.273-316.
- G. B. Shrestha and Q. Songbo, "Analysis of Electricity Price in Competitive Markets: A Study in Singapore Market," in IEEE PES general meeting, 2008.
- F. C. Schweppe, M. C. Caramanis, R. D. Tabors, and R. E. Bohn, Spot Pricing of Electricity: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1988.
- M. H. Albadi and E. F. El-Saadany, "A summary of demand response in electricity markets," Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 78, No.11, pp.1989- 1996, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2008.04.002
- S. Stoft, Power System Economics: Designing Markets for Electricity: Wiley, 2002.
- A. J. Wood and B. F. Wollenberg, Power generation, operation, and control, 2nd ed.: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
- C. K. Woo, "What went wrong in California's electricity market?," Energy, Vol. 26, pp.747-758, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0360-5442(01)00047-0
- S. Borenstein, "The trouble with electricity markets:Understanding california's restructuring disaster," Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 191-211, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1257/0895330027175
- C. Goldman, N. Hopper, K. Bharvirkar and L. Scholle, Customer Strategies for Responding to Day-Ahead Market Hourly Electricity Pricing: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2005.
- C.-L. Su and D. Kirschen, "Quantifying the effect of demand response on electricity markets," IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 1199-1207, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2009.2023259
- D. S. Kirschen, "Demand-side view of electricity markets," IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 520-527, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2003.810692
- B. Ramanathan and V. Vittal, "A Framework for Evaluation of Advanced Direct Load Control With Minimum Disruption," IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 1681-1688, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2008.2004732
- A.-H. Mohsenian-Rad and A. Leon-Garcia, "Optimal Residential Load Control With Price Prediction in Real-Time Electricity Pricing Environments," IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, Vol. 1, No.2, pp. 120-133, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2010.2055903
- Investigating the Impacts of Different Price-Based Demand Response Programs on Home Load Management vol.9, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5370/JEET.2014.9.3.1125