DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Supplemental Levels of Bazhen on Growth Performances, Serum Traits, Immunity, Meat Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Taiwan Country Chickens

  • Lien, Tu-Fa ;
  • Lin, Kou-Joong ;
  • Yang, Ling-Ling ;
  • Chen, Lih-Geeng
  • Received : 2012.02.15
  • Accepted : 2012.12.28
  • Published : 2013.05.01

Abstract

One hundred and sixty Taiwan country chickens (d-old chicks) were randomly assigned into four groups with four replicates and equal sex. Basal diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% of Bazhen powder, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine complex. The study was conducted for 14 wks. Experimental results indicated that Bazhen supplement did not influence feed intake, body weight gain and feed:gain ratio. Compared with control group, the percentage of serum HDL (high-density lipoprotein) linearly increased (p<0.03) and that of VLDL+LDL (very low-density+low-density lipoprotein) linearly decreased (p<0.03) in Bazhen supplemented groups, that 2% Bazhen was significantly different with control group (p<0.05). Chickens fed diets containing 2% Bazhen displayed reduced (p<0.05) serum GOT (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase) levels. The IgG, ${\gamma}$-globulin levels and PHA (phytohemagglutinin) skin challenge results in 1% Bazhan supplemented group were higher (p<0.05) than in the control group, the SRBC (sheep red blood cell) and ND (newcastle disease) titers in Bazhen supplemented groups were linear higher (p<0.05) than in the control group. The liver catalase activity and the capacity of scavenging DPPH (${\alpha}$-${\alpha}$-diphenyl-${\beta}$-picrylhydrazyl) radical were linearly increased (p<0.03) in Bazhen supplemented groups, and the 1 and 2% groups were different from the control group (p<0.05). Liver TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) levels in all Bazhen supplemented groups and total glutathione level in the 2% group were reduced (p<0.05) compared to the control group and displayed a linear response (p<0.05). The TBA (thiobarbituric acid) and pH value of the breast muscle after 24 h post-mortem in the Bazhen supplemented groups was linear lower (p<0.05) than in the control group. Results from this study demonstrated that Bazhen supplement in chicken had several beneficial effects, including increased SRBC and ND titers, HDL and IgG, ${\gamma}$-globulin levels, PHA skin challenge result, decreased VLDL+LDL and GOT levels, and displayed antioxidation effects in serum and carcass meat parameters.

Keywords

Bazhen;Growth Performances;Serum Traits;Meat Quality;Antioxidant Activity;Chickens

References

  1. Ockerman, H. W. 1974. Quality control of post-mortem muscle tissue. 9th ed., Animal Science Dept. The Ohio State University. Columbus, OH. USA. p. 91.
  2. Park, Y. C., G. Rimbach, C. Saliou, G. Valacchi and I. Packer. 2000. Activity of monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric flavonoids on NO production, TNF-$\alpha$ secretion, and NF-${\kappa}B$-dependent gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophaages. FEBS Lett. 465:93-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-5793(99)01735-4
  3. Roura, E ., C. Andres-Lacueva, R. Estruch and R. M. Lamuela-Raventos. 2006. Total polyphenol intake estimated by a modified Folin-Ciocalteu assay of urine. Clin. Chem. 52:749-752. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2005.063628
  4. Statistical Analysis System Institute. 1998. SAS/STAT User's guide, Version 6.06, 4th ed. Cary, NC.
  5. Tang, S. Z., J. P. Kerry, D. Sheehan, D. J. Buckley and P. A. Morrissey. 2000. Dietary tea catechins and iron-induced lipid oxidation in chicken meat, liver and heart. Meat Sci. 56:285-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00055-3
  6. Tang, S. Z., J. P. Kerry, D. Sheehan, D. J. Buckley and P. A. Morrissey. 2001. Antioxidative effect of dietary tea catechins on lipid oxidation of long-term frozen stored chicken meat. Meat Sci. 57:331-336. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(00)00112-1
  7. Tarlagis, B. G., B. M. Watts, M. T. Younathan and L. Dugan. 1960. A distillation method for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in rancid foods. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 37:44-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02630824
  8. Van Heugten, E., M. T. Coffey and J. W. Spears. 1996. Effects of immune challenge, dietary energy density and source of energy on performance and immunity in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2431-2440.
  9. Wadsworth, T. L. and D. R. Koop. 1999. Effects of the wine polyphenolics quercetin and resveratrol on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Biochem. Pharmacol. 57:941-949. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-2952(99)00002-7
  10. Windisch, W., K. Schedle, C. Plitzner and A. Kroismayr. 2008. Use of phytogenic products as feed additives for swine and poultry. J. Anim. Sci. 86:E140-E148.
  11. Yang, A., M. J. Brewster, M. C. Lanari and R. K. Tume. 2002. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on $\alpha$-tocopherol and $\beta$-carotene concentrations in tissues from pasture and grain-fed cattle. Meat Sci. 60:35-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(01)00102-4
  12. Zhishen, J., T. Mengcheng and W. Jianming. 1999. The determination of flavonoid content in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem. 64:555-559. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00102-2
  13. Zipser, M. W. and B. M. Watts. 1962. A modified 2-thiobarbituric acid method for the determination of malonaldehyde in cured meats. Food Technol. 16:102-104.
  14. Jeon, S. M., S. H. Bok, M. K. Jang, M. K. Lee, K. T. Nam, Y. B. Park, S. J. Rhee and M. S. Choi. 2001. Antioxidative activity of naringin and lovastatin in high cholesterol-fed rabbits. Life Sci. 69:2855-2866. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01363-7
  15. Joyenx, M., A. Rolland, J. Fleurentin, F. Mortier and P. Dorfman. 1990. Tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced injury in isolated rat hepatocytes: A model for studying anti-hepatotoxic crude drugs. Planta. Med. 56:171-174. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-960918
  16. Kannan, G., B. Kouakou and S. Gelaye. 2001. Color changes reflecting myoglobin and lipid oxidation in chevon cuts during refrigerated display. Small Rumin. Res. 42:67-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(01)00232-2
  17. Kegley, E. B. and J. W. Spears. 1995. Immune response, glucose metabolism, and performance of stressed feeder calves fed inorganic or organic chromium. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2721-2726.
  18. Kobuchi, H. M., T. Droy-Lefaix, Y. Christen and L. Packer. 1997. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761): Inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in the macrophage cell line RAW264. 7. Biochem. Pharmacol. 53:897-903. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-2952(96)00873-8
  19. Kong, X., Y. Hu, R. Rui, D. Wang and X. Li. 2004. Effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer after vaccination in chicken. Int. Immunopharmcol. 4:975-982. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2004.03.008
  20. Kuttan, G. and R. Kuttan. 1992. Immunomodulatiry activity of a peptide isolated from Viscum album extract. Immunol. Invest. 21:285-296. https://doi.org/10.3109/08820139209069368
  21. Leslie, H. and C. H. Frank. 1989. Practical Immunology. 3rd Ed. Blackwell Scientific, London. p. 23.
  22. Li, W., J. Bai, M. Wang and Y. Ji. 2012. Identification of the chemical constituents of bazhen decoction in rat feces by high performance liquid chromatography electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/MS). J. Med. Plant Res. 6:2601-2605.
  23. Liao, H. F ., M. C. Lu, H. C. Chang, C. C. Wei, C. H. Kao, Z. H ., Chen, C. C. Huang and C. Li. 2010. Effects of herbal medicinal formulas on suppressing viral replication and modulating immune responses. Am. J. Clin. Med. 38:173-190. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X10007749
  24. Lien, T. F., Y. M. Horng and C. P. Wu. 2007. Feasibility of replacing antibiotics feed promoters with the Chinese traditional herbal medicine Bazhen in weaned pigs. Livest. Sci. 107:97-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2006.09.008
  25. Lin, K. J., T. F. Tseng, C. K. Chou and S. L. Huang. 2003. Antioxidant effect of Chinese herbal medicines (Bazhen powder) used in the formulation on Chinese-style semi-dry sausage. J. Biomass Energy Soc. China 21:47-56.
  26. Liu, F. X., S. Sun and Z. Z. Cui. 2010a. Analysis of immunogical enhancement of immunosuppression chickens by Chinese herbal extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol. 127:251-256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.11.012
  27. Liu, X ., X. Wang , Z. Li , Y. Chen and J. Chen . 2010b. In vitro study for detecting the effects of Bazhen decoction on proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 27:855-858.
  28. Lowry, O. H., N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr and R. J. Randall. 1951. Protein measurement with Folin-phenol reagent. J. Biolog. Chem. 193:265-275.
  29. Bhat, G. B., S. B. Tinsley, J. K. Tolson, J. M. Patel and E. R. Block. 1992. Hypoxia increases the susceptibility of pulmonary artery endothelial cells to hydrogen peroxide injury. J. Cell Physiol. 151:228-238. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.1041510203
  30. Brody, T. 1994. Nutritional Biochemistry. Academic Press, Inc. London. p. 597-608.
  31. Chen, D., S. S. Zhao and K. S. Leung. 2009. Improved quality assessment of proprietary Chinese medicines based on multi-chemical class fingerprinting. J. Sep. Sci. 32:2892-2902. https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200900275
  32. Chun, Z ., X. Luo, D. Chen , M. Yu , Y. Cheng and Z. Yang. 2004. The influence of Bazhen decoction on hematopoietic modulator in anaemic mice. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 21:727-731.
  33. Damre, A. S., A. B. Gokhale, A. S. Phadke, K. R. Kulkarni and M. N. Saraf. 2003. Studies on the immunomodulatory activity of flavonoidal fraction of Tephrosia purpurea. Fitoterapia. 74:257-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(03)00042-X
  34. Davis, L. and G. Kuttan. 2000. Immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera. J. Ethnopharmacol. 71:193-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00206-8
  35. Dehmlow, C., J. Erhard and H. de Groot. 1996. Inhibition of Kupffer cell functions as an explanation for the hepatoprotective properties of silibinin. Hepatology 23:749-754. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.510230415
  36. Deng, W., X. Fang and J. Wu. 1996. Flavonoids function as antioxidants: by scavenging reactive oxygen species or by chelating iron. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 50:271-276.
  37. Ellerby, L. M. and D. E. Bredesen. 2000. Measurement of cellular oxidation, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant enzymes during apotosis. Methods Enzymol. 322:413-421. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(00)22040-5
  38. Ergil, K. V. 1996. China's traditional medicine. In: Fundamentals of complementary and Alternative Medicine (Ed. M. S. Micozzi). Liveingstone, New York. USA. p. 185-223.
  39. Fraga, C. G., B. E. Leibovitz and A. L. Tappel. 1988. Lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance in tissue slices: Characterization and comparison between homogenates and microsome. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 4:155-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(88)90023-8
  40. Gladine, C., C. Morand, E. Rock, D. Gruffat, D. Bauchart and D. Durand. 2007. The antioxidative effect of plant extracts rich in polyphenols differs between liver and muscle tissues in rats fed n-3 PUFA rich diet. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 139:257-272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.01.015
  41. Halliwell, B. 1994. Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: curiosity, cause, or consequence? Lancet 344:721-724. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(94)92211-X
  42. Hatano, T., R. Edamatsu, A. Mori, Y. Fujita, T. Yasuhara, T. Yoshida and T. Okuda. 1989. Effects of the interaction of tannins with co-existing substances. VI. Effects of tannins and related polyphenols on superoxide aniom radical, and on 1,1-diphenyl-pierylhydrazyl radical. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37:2016-2021. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.37.2016
  43. Hollman, P. C. and M. B. Katan. 1997. Absorption, metabolism and health effects of dietary flavonoids in man. Biomed. Pharmacother. 51:305-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0753-3322(97)88045-6
  44. Alvarez, P., C. Alcvarado, M. Puerto, A. Schlumberger, L. Jimenez and M. D. I. Fuente. 2006. Improvement of leukocyte functions in prematurely aging mice after five weeks of diet supplementation with polyphenol-rich cereals. Nutrition 22:913-921. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2005.12.012

Cited by

  1. Physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid profiles of muscle tissues from Hanwoo steers fed a total mixed ration supplied with medicinal plant by-products vol.30, pp.10, 2017, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0729
  2. Growth performance, apparent digestibility, and N balance in Mongolian lambs and hoggs fed diets supplemented with a Chinese traditional herbal medicine complex vol.89, pp.10, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.13081