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Effects of Tiam 1 on Invasive Capacity of Gastric Cancer Cells in vitro and Underlying Mechanisms

  • Zhu, Jin-Ming (Department of General Surgery, Jinan Military General Hospital) ;
  • Yu, Pei-Wu (Department of General Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University)
  • Published : 2013.01.31

Abstract

Objective: To investigate changes in the invasive capacity of gastric cancer cells in vitro after expression inhibition of T lymphoma invasion and metastasis inducing factor 1 (Tiam 1) and underlying mechanisms. Methods: Using adhesion selection, two subpopulations with high ($M_H$) or low ($M_L$) invasive capacity were separated from the human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45 ($M_0$). Tiam 1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) was transfected into $M_H$ cells with liposomes, and expression of Tiam 1 mRNA and protein was determined by RT-PCR and quantitative cellular-ELISA. Changes in the cytoskeleton, invasive capacity in vitro and expression of ras-related $C_3$ botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac 1), integrin ${\beta}1$ and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP 2) between Tiam 1 ASODN transfected $M_H$ cells and non-transfected cells were observed by HE staining, cytoskeletal protein staining, scanning electron microscopy, Boyden chamber tests and cyto-immunohistochemistry. Results: A positive correlation existed between the expression level of Tiam l mRNA or protein and the invasion capacity of gastric cancer cells. After ASODN treatment ($0.43{\mu}M$ for 48 h), Tiam 1 mRNA transcription and protein expression in $M_H$ cells were decreased by 80% and 24% respectively (P < 0.05), compared with untreated controls, while invasive capacity in vitro was suppressed by 60% (P < 0.05). Morphologic and ultrastructural observation also showed that ASODN-treated $M_H$ cells exhibited smooth surfaces with obviously reduced filopodia and microspikes, which resembled $M_0$ and $M_L$ cells. Additionally, cytoskeletal distribution dramatically altered from disorder to regularity with reduced long filament-like structure, projections, pseudopodia on cell surface, and with decreased acitn-bodies in cytoplasm. After Tiam 1 ASODN treatment, the expression of Rac 1 and Integrin ${\beta}1$ in $M_H$ cells was not affected (P > 0.05), but that of MMP 2 in $M_H$ cells was significantly inhibited compared with untreated cells (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Over-expression of Tiam-1 contributes to the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells. Inhibition of Tiam 1 expression could impair the invasive capacity of gastric cancer cells through modulating reconstruction of the cytoskeleton and regulating expression of MMP 2.

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