Quality Characteristics of Kimchi Fermented with Abalone or Sea Tangle Extracts

전복과 다시마 추출물을 첨가한 김치의 발효 특성

  • Received : 2012.11.08
  • Accepted : 2012.12.26
  • Published : 2013.03.31


This study evaluated the quality characteristics of fermented abalone-kimchi or sea tangle-kimchi during 28 days of storage at $4^{\circ}C$. Abalone and sea tangle were added as extracts compared to a control. We analyzed lactic acid bacteria, pH, acidity, salinity, reducing sugars, free sugars, organic acids, free amino acids, and sensory characteristics. The lactic acid bacteria levels were 4.4~5.3 log CFU/g on day 0, 6.8~7.1 log CFU/g after 7 days, and continued to rise during the fermentation period. The salinity increased slightly over time. As fermentation progressed, pH and reducing sugars, free sugars, and organic acid contents decreased. Free sugars, in particular, dramatically decreased about 70% compared to the initial day. The total free amino acid content was higher in abalone-kimchi. In terms of free amino acid contents, taurine was high in abalone-kimchi, while glutamic acid and aspartic acid content was high in sea tangle-kimchi. The sensory evaluation results show that abalone-kimchi and sea tangle-kimchi had higher scores for their savory taste and overall acceptance compared to the control.

본 연구는 전복 및 다시마 추출물 첨가 김치의 아미노산 함량 및 발효특성에 관해 살펴보았다. 전복와 다시다는 추출물 형태로 첨가하였으며 젖산균, pH, 산도, 염도, 환원당, 유리당, 유기산, 유리 아미노산 및 관능평가를 실시하였다. 젖산균은 결과 초기 4.4~5.3 log CFU/g 수준이었으며 저장 7일째 6.8~7.1 log CFU/g 수준에 도달하였으며 그 이후에는 비슷한 수준을 유지하였다. 환원당과 유리당은 감소하는 경향을 보였으며 이는 젖산균 증식과 상관관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 유기산 중 citric acid, malic acid 및 succinic acid는 발효 동안 감소하는 경향을 나타내었으며 lactic acid와 acetci acid는 증가하였다. 아미노산 분석 결과 타우린은 전복 첨가 김치에서 가장 높은 수준을 나타내었으며 glutamic acid와 aspartic acid 함량은 다시마 첨가 김치에서 높은 수준을 보였다. 관능평가 결과 또한 다시마 첨가 김치를 가장 선호하였으며 전복 첨가 김치는 대조구와 비슷한 기호도를 나타내었다.



  1. Ku KH, Sunwoo KY, Park WS. 2005. Effects of ingredients on the its quality characteristics during Kimchi fermentation. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34: 267-276.
  2. Jeong JW, Kim OS, Sung JM. 2011. Quality and fermentation characteristics of kimchi made with different types of dried red pepper (Capsicum annum L.). J Food Sci Nutr 16: 74-82.
  3. Sung JM, Lim JH, Kim SI, Jeong JW. 2009. Effect of mashed red pepper admixed with various freezing point depression agents on the quality characteristics of kimchi. Korean J Food Preserv 16: 861-868.
  4. Hwang IG, Kim HY, Hwang Y, Jeong HS, Lee JS, Kim HY, Yoo SM. 2012. Changes in quality characteristics of Kimchi added with the fresh red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Korean J Food Cookery Sci 28: 167-174.
  5. Min SG, Kim JH, Kim Cho S, Sin HS, Hong GH, Oh DG, Kim KN. 2003. Manufactures of functional kimchi using Bifidobacterium strain producing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as starter. Korean J Food Sci Technol 35: 111-114.
  6. Han JS, Lee SH, Lee KI, Park KY. 1995. Standardizations of traditional special kimchi in Kyungsang province. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 5: 27-38.
  7. Yoon SS. 1992. A historical study of Korean traditional kimchi. Korean J Dietary Culture 6: 467-477.
  8. Park SY, Lim HK, Park S, Cho M. 2012. Quality and preference changes red sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) Kimchi during storage period. J Appl Biol Chem 55: 135-140.
  9. Ahn MJ. 1985. Effects on the fermentation of soy sauce by the addition of the Laminaria longissima. MS Thesis. Korea University, Korea.
  10. Tsuji E, Tsuji K, Suzuki S. 1975. Effect of polysaccharides on cholesterol metabolism effect of various polysaccharides on serum and liver cholesterol levels in cholesterol-fet rats. Eiyogaku Zashi 33: 273-281.
  11. Kimura T, Tsuji K. 1993. Effects of the primary structure of alginate on fecal excretion of sodium in rats. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 67: 1177-1183.
  12. Tsai AC, Elias J, Kelley JJ, Lin RC, Robson JR. 1976. Influence of certain dietary fibers on serum and tissue cholesterol levels in rats. J Nutr 106: 118-123.
  13. Ku HS, Noh JS, Yun YR, Kim HJ, Kwon MJ, Cheigh HS, Song YO. 2007. Weight reduction and lipid lowering effects of sea tangle added Korean cabbage kimchi. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 36: 1140-1147.
  14. Kang HJ. 1994. Effects of sodium alginate and cellulose on lipoprotein composition and lipid metabolism in rats. MS Thesis. Pusan National University, Korea.
  15. Kim SJ, Seo HL, Lee HM, Yeom JU, Kim GH, Jang ES, Baeg YH, Jeon BH. 2003. The effect of exercise and taurine supplementation on body weight, blood glucose, insulin and cholesterol levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Korean J Exerc Nutr 7: 257-263.
  16. Kim HL, Kang SG, Kim IC, Kim SJ, KIm DW, Ma SJ, Gao T, Li H, Kim MJ, Lee TH, Ham KS. 2006. In vitro anti-hypertensive, antioxidant and anticoagulant activities of extracts from Haliotis discus hannai. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 35: 835-840.
  17. AOAC. 1990. Official method of analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA. p 644.
  18. Miller GL. 1959. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid regent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem 31: 426-428.
  19. Sung JM, Lim JH, Park KJ, Jeong JW. 2008. Effects of semi-dried red pepper with a different seed ratio on the quality of kimchi . Korean J Food Preserv 15: 427-436.
  20. Waters AccQ-Tag Amino Acid Analysis System. 1993. Operator's manual. Manual number 154-02TP REV O June. Milford, MA, USA.
  21. Kang SS, Kim JM, Byun MW. 1998. Preservation of Kimchi by ionizing radiation. Kor J Food Hygiene 3: 225-232.
  22. Ku KH, Kang KO, Kim WJ. 1988. Some quality changes during fermentation of Kimch. Korean J Food Sci Technol 20: 476-482.
  23. Lee YH, Yang IW. 1970. Studies on the packaing and preservation of kimchi. J Korean Agric Chem Soc 13: 207-218.
  24. Park SH, Lee JH. 2005. The correlation of physico-chemical characteristics of Kimchi with sourness and overall acceptability. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 21: 103-109.
  25. Bang BH, Seo JS, Jeong EJ. 2008. A method for maintaining good Kimchi quality during fermentation. Korea J Food & Nutr 21: 51-55.
  26. Cheigh HS, Park KY. 1994. Biochemical, microbiological, and nutritional aspects of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetable products). Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 34: 175-203.
  27. Yim SB, Kim MS, Kim EK, Chang YH, Jeong YH. 2011. Microbial properties of taurine supplemented Kimchi during fermentation at low temperature. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 21: 257-262.
  28. Lee HS, Ko YT, Lim SJ. 1984. Effects of protein sources on Kimchi fermentation and on the stability of ascorbic acid. Korean J Nutr 17: 101-107.
  29. Kim YW, Kung JK, Cho YJ, Lee SJ, Kim SH, Park KY, Kang SA. 2009. Quality changes in brined Baechu cabbage using different types of polyethylene film, and salt content during storage. Korean J Food Preserv 16: 605-611.
  30. Sung JM, Choi HY. 2009. Effects of Alaska pollack addition on the quality of kimchi (Korean salted cabbage). Korean J Food Preserv 16: 772-781.
  31. Ryu BM, Jeon YS, Song YS, Moon GS. 1996. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of anchovy added kimchi. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 25: 460-469.
  32. Park DC, Kim EM, Kim EJ, Kim YM, Kim SB. 2003. The contents of organic acids, nucleotides and their related compounds in kimchi prepared with salted-fermented fish products and their alternatives. Korean J Food Sci Technol 35: 769-776.
  33. Yoo MJ, Kim HR, Chung HJ. 2001. Changes in physicochemical and microbiological properties in low-temperature and long-term fermented kimchi during fermentation. Korean J Dietary Culture 16: 431-441.
  34. Park IK, Kim SH, Kim SD. 1996. Effects of organic acids addition during salting on the fermentation of Kimchi. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 6: 195-204.
  35. Choi MJ, Seo JN. 2006. The effect of dietary taurine supplementation on plasma and liver lipid concentrations in rats. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 16: 121-127.
  36. Kim ES, Kim JS, Moon HK. 1999. Taurine contents in commercial milks, meats and seafoods. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 28: 16-21.
  37. Bae TJ, Choi OS. 2001. Changes of free amino acid compositions and sensory properties on Kochujang added sea tangle powder during fermentation. Korean J Food & Nutr 14: 245-254.
  38. Yang SH, Choi MR, Kim JK, Chung YG. 1992. Characteristics of the taste in traditional Korean soybean paste. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 21: 443-448.
  39. Cho Y, Rhee HS. 1978. A study on flavorous taste components in kimchis on free amino acids. Korean J Food Sci Technol 11: 26-31.

Cited by

  1. Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) Extracts vol.24, pp.7, 2014,
  2. Use of Food-Grade Protective Agents to Improve the Viability of Freeze-Dried Lactic Acid Bacteria vol.46, pp.5, 2014,
  3. Physiochemical and Quality Characteristics of Young Radish (Yulmoo) Kimchi Cultivated by Organic Farming vol.43, pp.8, 2014,
  4. Effect of blanching time on the quality characteristics of elderly-friendly kkakdugi vol.26, pp.2, 2017,
  5. Quality and sensory characteristics of commercial kimchi according to sodium contents vol.48, pp.5, 2016,
  6. Changes in the Levels of γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Free Amino Acids during Kimchi Fermentation vol.29, pp.6, 2013,
  7. Nutrient intakes and frequently consumed foods among Korean adults according to the intake frequency of Baechu (Chinese cabbage) kimchi: Based on the 2012~2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey vol.49, pp.2, 2016,
  8. Comparative quality analysis of kimchi products manufactured in Korea, Japan, and China vol.23, pp.7, 2016,
  9. Relationship Between Plant Food (Fruits, Vegetables, and Kimchi) Consumption and the Prevalence of Rhinitis Among Korean Adults: Based on the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data vol.19, pp.12, 2016,
  10. A mathematical model to predict ripening degree of kimchi , a Korean fermented vegetable for meeting consumer preference and controlling shelf life on real time basis vol.12, 2017,
  11. Quality characteristics of kimchi with Allium hookeri root powder added vol.20, pp.6, 2013,
  12. Quality and functional characteristics of kimchi made with organically cultivated young Chinese cabbage (olgari-baechu) vol.3, pp.2, 2016,
  13. Changes in the Physicochemical Quality Characteristics of Cabbage Kimchi with respect to Storage Conditions vol.2017, 2017,
  14. Quality Characteristics of Dolsan Leaf Mustard Kimchi Added with Seasoning of Sea tangle and Lentinus edodes vol.25, pp.5, 2015,
  15. A Study on the Kimchi Consumption of Korean Adults:Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010~2012) vol.30, pp.4, 2015,
  16. Analysis of Kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption trends among Korean adults: data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) vol.10, pp.2, 2016,
  17. Quality Characteristics of Kimchi Added with Allium hookeri Root vol.42, pp.10, 2013,
  18. Nutrient Composition and Sensory Characteristics of Seokbakji Supplemented with Seafood vol.45, pp.5, 2013,