Effects of Brewers Grain, Soybean Curd and Rice Straw as an Ingredient of TMR on Growth Performance, Serum Parameters and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers

섬유질 배합사료 원료로서 맥주박, 비지박 및 볏짚이 한우 거세우의 사양성적, 혈액성상 및 도체특성에 미치는 영향

  • 장선식 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원) ;
  • 권혁진 (거제축협) ;
  • 이상민 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원) ;
  • 조영무 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원) ;
  • 정기용 (농촌진흥청 국립축산과학원) ;
  • 최낙진 (전북대학교 동물소재공학과) ;
  • 이성실 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부)
  • Received : 2012.08.04
  • Accepted : 2013.02.25
  • Published : 2013.02.28


This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of total mixed rations (TMR) containing brewers grain, soybean curd and rice straw, respectively, on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Twenty four Hanwoo steers (average body weight 168 kg) in 6 months age were randomly allocated to 4 experimental groups, which contained 6 animals per group during 22-months feeding trial. The treatment was composed of the group fed concentrate and rice straw separately (T1), the group fed TMR containing brewers grain (T2), the group fed TMR containing soybean curd (T3) and the group fed TMR containing rice straw (T4). Body weight (BW) was not different among treatment groups during the growing and middle fattening period. However, it was significantly greater in T4 group than in T2 group on the final BW (p<0.05). Average daily gain was significantly greater in TMR groups compared to T1 group on the growing and late fattening (p<0.05). However, it was not different in total average. Dry matter intake tended to be increased in TMR groups. The feed conversion ratio was significantly lower in T4 group compare to T2 group (p<0.05). According to the yield traits, carcass weight of T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 389.0, 368.4, 387.5 and 384.3 kg, respectively. The back fat thickness, rib-eye area, and yield index were not different among the groups. Meat color, fat color, texture and maturity were not significantly different among groups. However, marbling score and appearance rate of meat quality grade of over $1^+$ were greater in T2 and T3 groups compare to other groups. Therefore, these results indicated that TMR with brewers grain and soybean curd may be ameliorated the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers.


Total mixed ration;Hanwoo steers;Growth performance;Carcass characteristics


  1. A.O.A.C. 1990. Official method of analysis. 15th ed. Assoc. Offic. Chem., Arlington, VA, USA.
  2. Arave, C. W., Miller, R. H. and Lamb, R. C. 1975. Genetic and environmental effects on serum cholesterol of dairy cattle of various ages. J. Dairy Sci. 58:3-11.
  3. Cho, Y. M., Kwon, E. G., Chang, S. S., Kim, T, I., Park, B. K., Kang, S. W. and Paek, B. H. 2008. Effects of Total Mixed Rations on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol. (Kor.) 50:363-372.
  4. Choi, C. W., Baek, K. H., Kim, S. J., Oh, Y. K., Hong, S. K., Kwon, E. K., Song, M. K. and Choi, C. B. 2009. Effects of polyclonal antibodies to abdominal and subcutaneous adipocytes on ruminal fermentation patterns and blood metabolites in korean native steers. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol. 51:231-240.
  5. Choi, S. H., Hwangbo, S., Kim, S. W., Sang, B. D., Kim, K. Y. and Jo, I. H. 2006. Effects of total mixed ration with wet brewer's grain on the performance and nutrient utilization in castrated Korean black goats. J. Korean Grassl. Sci. 26:199-206.
  6. Enright, W. J., Quirke, J. F., Gluckman, P. D., Breier, B. H., Kennedy, L. G., Hart, I. C., Rochecoert, J. F. and Allen, P. 1990. Effects of long-time administration of pituitary-derived bovine growth hormone and estradiol on growth in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 68:2345-2356.
  7. Harrison, J. H., Riley, R. E. and Long, K. A. 1989. Effect of type and amount of buffer addition to grass silage-based total mixed rations on milk production and composition. J. Dairy. Sci. 72:1824-1830.
  8. Hathch, C. F., Perry, T. W., Mohler, M. T. and Beeson, W. M. 1972. Effects of corn distillers soluble and brewers dried grains with yeast in urea-containing rations on steer performance. J. Anim. Sci. 34:326-331.
  9. Howard, W. T., Albright, J. L., Cunningham, M. D., Harrington, R. B. and Noller, C. J. 1968. Least cost complete ration for Dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2755.
  10. Jackson, M. G. 1977. The alkali treatment of straws. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 2:105.
  11. Kang, S. W., Ki, K. S., Oh, Y. K., Kim, K. H. and Choi, C. W. 2005. Effects of Roughage Feeding Type during the Growing and Early-Fattening Periods on Growth Performance, Feed Efficiency and Carcass Characteristics in Holstein Steers. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol. (Kor.) 47:769-782.
  12. Kellems, R., Jones, O. R., Andrus, D. and Wallentine, M. V. 1991. Effect of moisture in total mixed rations on feed consumption and milk production and composition in Holstein cows. J. Dairy. Sci. 74:929-932.
  13. Kim, K. H., Kim. K., Lee, S. C., Oh. Y. G., Chung, C. S. and Kim, K. J. 2003. Effects of Total Mixed Rations on Ruminal Characteristics, Digestibility and Beef Production of Hanwoo Steers. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol. (Kor.) 45:387-396.
  14. Kwak, W. S. and Yoon, J. S. 2003. On-site Output Survey and Feed Value Evaluation on Agroindustrial By-products. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol. (Kor.) 45:251-264.
  15. Kwon, E. G., Hong, S. K., Seong, H. H., Yun, S. G., Park, B. K., Cho, Y. M., Cho, W. M., Chang, S. S., Shin, K. J. and Paek, B. H. 2005. Effects of Ad libitum and restricted feeding concentrates on body weight gain, feed intake and blood metabolites of Hanwoo steers at various growth stages. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol. (Kor.) 47:745-758.
  16. McCarthy, F. D., Norton, S. A. and McClure, W. H. 1990. Utilization of an ensiled wet brewers' grains-corn mixture by growing lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. & Tech. 28:29-38.
  17. Nocek, J. E., Steele, R. E. and Braund, D. G. 1986. Performance of dairy cows fed forage and grain separately versus a total mixed ration. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2140-2147.
  18. Park, B. K., Gil. M. J., Kim, J. B., Hong, B. J., Ra, C. S. and Shin, J. S. 2003. Effects of Fermented Feedstuff with Wet Brewer's Grain and Soybean on Fattening Performance and Carcass Grade in Hanwoo Steers. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol. (Kor.) 45:397-408.
  19. SAS. 2011. SAS/STAT Software for PC. Release 6.11, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, U.S.A.
  20. Shin, J. S., Lin, G. Z. and Kim, B. W. 2008. The effect of alcohol fermented feedstuff made ofbyproducts on fermentation characteristics and dry matter disappearance in the rumen. J. Kor. Grassl. Forage Sci. 28:49-60.
  21. Sung, K. I. 2001. Efficient use of the Agri-byproducts. pp 61-86. National Institute of Animal Science, RDA.
  22. Vernon, R. G. 1992. Control of lipogenesis and lipolysis. In : The control of fat and lean deposition (Eds. Boorman, K. N., Buttery, P. J. and Lindsay, D. B.). Butterworth, Heinemann, Oxford.
  23. Woo, J. S., Jang, S. S., Im, S. K., Lee, S. D., Lee, M. S., Park, J. Y. Hong, S. K. Lee, S. S. and Lee, S. M. 2011. Effects of Total Mixed Fermentations with Bean Curd Dregs on Growth Performance of Growing Hanwoo Heifers. J. Life Sci. 21:1460-1465.

Cited by

  1. Manufacturing and Feed Value Evaluation of Wood-Based Roughage Using Lumber from Thinning of Oak and Pitch Pine vol.43, pp.6, 2015,
  2. Effects of Inoculant Application Level on Chemical Compositions of Fermented Chestnut Meal and Its Rumen Fermentation Indices vol.27, pp.5, 2018,
  3. In situ Ruminal and Intestinal Digestibility of Crude Protein and Amino Acids in By-product Feedstuffs vol.38, pp.2, 2018,