Quality Characteristics of Hwanggeumju as a Traditional Home-Brewed Liquor

전통 가양주인 황금주의 품질 특성

  • Baek, Seong Yeol (Fermented Food Science Division, Department of Agro-food Resource, NAAS, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Joo-Yeon (Fermented Food Science Division, Department of Agro-food Resource, NAAS, RDA) ;
  • Baek, Chang Ho (Fermented Food Science Division, Department of Agro-food Resource, NAAS, RDA) ;
  • Choi, Ji-Ho (Fermented Food Science Division, Department of Agro-food Resource, NAAS, RDA) ;
  • Choi, Han-Seok (Fermented Food Science Division, Department of Agro-food Resource, NAAS, RDA) ;
  • Jeong, Seok-Tae (Fermented Food Science Division, Department of Agro-food Resource, NAAS, RDA) ;
  • Yeo, Soo-Hwan (Fermented Food Science Division, Department of Agro-food Resource, NAAS, RDA)
  • 백성열 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 농식품자원부 발효식품과) ;
  • 김주연 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 농식품자원부 발효식품과) ;
  • 백창호 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 농식품자원부 발효식품과) ;
  • 최지호 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 농식품자원부 발효식품과) ;
  • 최한석 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 농식품자원부 발효식품과) ;
  • 정석태 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 농식품자원부 발효식품과) ;
  • 여수환 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 농식품자원부 발효식품과)
  • Received : 2012.08.03
  • Accepted : 2012.12.06
  • Published : 2013.02.28


The quality characteristics of Hwanggeumju (a type of traditional Korean rice wine), which has been described in an ancient document (Sangayorok), were investigated. During its fermentation, its pH gradually decreased from 4.23 to 3.96); and after four days of fermentation, its sugar content significantly decreased. After seven days, its alcohol content rapidly increased to 15.8 percent. Its major organic acid is lactic acid, but malic, succinic, citric and acetic acid were also detected in it. The free amino acid analysis showed relatively high alanine, arginine, asparagine, glutamic acid and leucine contents. The sensory evaluation resulted in high scores for color, turbidity and taste.


Hwanggeumju;Sangayorok;home-brewed liquor;restore;sensory evaluation


Supported by : 국립농업과학원


  1. Lee SL (1986) Korean fermented foods. Ewha womans university press, Seoul, Korea, p 197
  2. Kim CJ, Kim GC, Kim DY, Oh MJ, Lee SG, Lee SO, Jeong ST, Jeong JH (1990) Fermentation Technology. Seonjinmunhwasa, Seoul, Korea, p 59-79
  3. Park RD (2009) Hanmathaneol. Food culture, 2, 32-37
  4. Kim LH, Park WS, Koo YJ (1996) Comparison of fermentation characteristics of Korean traditional alcoholic beverage with different input step and treatment of rice and nuruk. Korean Soc of Food Cult, 11, 339-348
  5. Kim YJ, Han YS (2006) The use of Korean traditional liquors and plan for encouraging it. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol, 21, 31-41
  6. Park RD (2004) Traditional liquor. Daewonsa, Seoul, Korea. p 15-25
  7. Jo GY, Lee CW (1997) Isolation and identification of the fungi from nuruk. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 26, 759-766
  8. Kim HS, Hyun JS, Kim J, Ha HP, Yu TS (1997) Characteristics of useful fungi isolated from traditional Korean nuruk. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 26, 767-774
  9. Lee SH, Jung HJ, Yeo SH, Kim HS, Yu TS (2004) Chracteristics of ${\alpha}$-amylase of, a new species, Aspergillus coreanus NR 15-1. Korean J Biotechnol Bioeng, 19, 301-307
  10. Han EH, Lee TS, Noh BS, Lee DS (1997) Quality characteristics in mash of Takju prepared by using different nuruk during fermentation. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 29, 555-562
  11. Park CS and Lee TS (2002) Quality characteristics of takju prepared by wheat flour nuruks. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 38, 296-302
  12. Lee MK, Lee SW, Yoon TH (1994) Quality assessment of yakju brewed with conventional nuruk. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 23, 78-89
  13. Lee TS and Han EH (2000) Volatile flavor components in mash of takju by using Rhizopus japonicus Nuruks. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 29, 691-698
  14. Yun SK (1998) Suunjapbang Juchan. Shinkwang
  15. Yu MN, Ahn YS, Kim MH (2004) Sangayorok. Rural development administration, Minhooart, Suwon, Korea, p 74
  16. Lee HS, Park CS, Choi JY (2000) Quality characteristics of the mashes of Takju prepared using different yeasts. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 42, 56-62
  17. Hwang SJ and Ahn JC (2008) Quality characteristics of Jeolpyeon containing Astragalus membranaceus extract. Korean J Food Cookery Sci, 24, 266-271
  18. Min SH and Park OJ (2008) Quality characteristics of Yanggaeng prepared with different amounts of Astralus membranaceus powder. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life, 18, 9-13
  19. Cho IK, Huh CK, Kim YD (2010) Quality characteristics of Yakju (a traditional Korean beverage) after addition of different tissues of Opuntia ficus indica from Shinan, Korea. Korean J Food Preserv, 17, 36-41
  20. Lee JO, Kim CJ (2011) The influence of adding buckwheat sprouts on the fermentation characteristics of Yakju. Korean J Food Culture, 26, 72-79
  21. Jung HK, Park CD, Park HH, Lee GD, Lee IS, Hong JH (2006) Manufacturing and characteristics of Korean traditional liquor, Hahyangju prepared by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HA3 isolated from traditional Nuruk. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 38, 659-667
  22. So MH, Lee YS, Noh WS (1999) Changes in microorgarnism and main components during Takju brewing by a modified Nuruk. Korean J Food Nutr, 12, 226-232
  23. Jin TY, Chung HJ, Eun JB (2005) The effect of replacement levels of non-waxy rice on the quality of Jinyangju, a Korean traditional rice wine made of glutinous rice. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 37, 939-943
  24. Park JH, Yeo SH, Jeong ST, Won MH, Choi JH (2011) Characteristics of Samhaeju Made by Various Processing Methods Originating from Ancient Documents. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life, 21, 853-862
  25. Joung EJ, Paek NS, Kim YM (2004) Studies on Korean Takju using the by-product of rice milling. Korean J Food & Nutr, 27, 199-205
  26. Iwata H, Iwase S, Matsuura H, Suzuki T, Aramaki I (2001) Sake making uncooked rice polish. J Brew Soc Japan, 96, 63-69
  27. Lee WK, Kim JR, Lee MW (1987) Studies on the changes in free amine acid and organic acids of Takju prepared with different koji strains. J Korean Agri Chem Soc, 30, 323-327
  28. Jeong JW, Park KJ, Kim MH, Kim DS (2006) Changes in quality of spray-dried and freeze-dried Takju powder during storage. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 38, 513-520

Cited by

  1. Study on Quality Characteristics of Korean Traditional Kukhwaju by Addition of Dried Chrysanthemum indicum L. Extract into Mash vol.44, pp.9, 2015,
  2. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Effects of Yakju Added with Rose, Camellia and Cockscomb Flower vol.32, pp.4, 2016,