DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon on the cytokine gene expression in human keratinocytes

자초(紫草)가 HaCaT 세포의 사이토카인 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2013.01.18
  • Accepted : 2013.02.14
  • Published : 2013.02.25

Abstract

Objective : Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a major pathogenic bacteria for acne vulgaris. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Lithospermum erythrorhizon extracts on the inflammatory cytokines gene expression by P. acnes in human keratinocytes, HaCaT cell line. Methods : Anti-bacterial activity and cytotoxicity of LE extracts was analyzed by agar plate culture and XTT assay. The cytokines gene expressions were assessed by real time RT-PCR for IL-8, MCP-1 and TNF-${\alpha}$. During the cell culture and treatments, amounts of secreted TNF-${\alpha}$ were measured by ELISA. Translocation of transcription factor NF-${\kappa}B$ from cytoplasm into nucleus was observed by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Results : There were no anti-bacterial effects and cytotoxicity as high as $1,000{\mu}g/ml$ of LE extracts in XTT assay. Transcription levels of inflammatory cytokines, IL-8, MCP-1 and TNF-${\alpha}$ were increased by P. acnes in HaCaT. LE extracts decreased the upregulated gene transcription levels. However, amounts of secreted TNF-${\alpha}$ were similar in HaCaT cells with P. acnes and LE extracts. Translocation of NF-${\kappa}B$ into nucleus by P. acnes was significantly inhibited by LE extracts. Conclusions : From the results of this study, LE extracts have anti-inflammatory effects on HaCaT cells by P. acnes that decreased the mRNA expressions of IL-8, MCP-1 and TNF-${\alpha}$. This anti-inflammatory effects of LE extracts could provide the potential of therapeutic substance for acne vulgaris.

Keywords

Propionibacterium acnes;acne vulgaris;LE extracts;human keratinocytes;anti-inflammatory;effects

References

  1. Korean Dermatological Association Textbook Compilation Committee. 5th Edition Dermatology. Seoul:Ryo Moon Gak P. Co. 2008:446-54.
  2. Jeong JY. Acne. Seoul:MD world. 2007:15, 32-5, 63-5, 142-58, 207-8, 201-2, 214, 517-38, 711-2, 812-25.
  3. Cunliffe WJ, et al. Comedogenesis: some new aetiological, clinical and therapeutic strategies. Br J Dermatol. 2000;142:1084-91. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2133.2000.03531.x
  4. Vowels BR, Yang S, Leyden JJ. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines by a soluble factor of Propionibacterium acnes: Implications for chronic inflammatory acne. Infect Immunol. 1995;63:3158-65.
  5. Gong TX. Recovery from All ailments. Seoul:Uiseongdang. 1993:271.
  6. Chen Z, Hagler J, Palombella VJ, Melandri F, Scherer D, Ballard D, et al. Signal-induced site specific phosphorylation targets $I{\kappa}Ba$ to the ubiquitin proteosome pathway. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1586-97. https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.9.13.1586
  7. Wu KQ. Pathogens Dictionary. Tianjin:Gu-Ji Shu Dian. 1998:511.
  8. Chen SD. Shi Shi Mi Lu. Beijing:Zhong Yi Gu Ji Publishing Inc. 1999:146.
  9. Ge H. Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergencies. Beijing:Ren Min Wei Sheng Publishing Inc. 1996:196.
  10. Lou Y. Yi Xue Gang Mu. Beijing:Zhong Yi Gu Ji Publishing Inc. 1999:506.
  11. Park BG. Oriental Medicine Clinical forty years. Seoul:DaegwangMunhwasa. 1979:460-1.
  12. Yang SJ. Effects of Hedyotis diffusa in patients with acne. Graduate School of Complementary Alternative Medicine Pochon CHA University Master's thesis. 2005.
  13. Seo HS. Studies of the Effects of Gami-Shengmayuipung-tang on Acnes. The Journal of Korean Oriental Meidical Society. 2005;26(1):134-47.
  14. Wu Q. Golden Mirror of Medicine. Taipei:Da Zhongguo Tu Shu Gong Si. 1973:125.
  15. Rho SS. Full-color Dermatology. Seoul:IBC Design. 2006:737-41.
  16. Chen SD. Dong Tian Ao Zhi Geka Hiroku. Seoul:Uiseongdang. 1993:112-3, 210-1.
  17. Chen SG. Wai ke zheng zong. Beijing:Ren Min Wei Sheng Publishing Inc. 1964:255.
  18. David JG. Dermatology an Illustrarated Colour Text. Seoul:Koon Ja Publishing Inc. 2010:62-3.
  19. Paul WE. Interleukin-4: a prototypic immunoregulatory lymphokine. Blood. 1991;77:1859-70.
  20. Homey B, Steinhoff M, Ruzicka T, Leung DY. Cytokines and chemokines orchestrate atopic skin inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118:178-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2006.03.047
  21. Sin MK. Clinical Traditional Herbalogy. Yeongnimsa. 2002:172-3, 242-3, 252-3, 247, 372-3, 400-1, 431, 756-7.
  22. Leslie B. Cosmetic dermatoogy. Seoul: Jungdam Media. 2004:75-81.
  23. Kim YG. Ear Acupuncture. Seoul: Myeongmundang. 1992:67.
  24. Department of Dermatology, Seoul National Universiy College of Medicine. Dermatology for Medical Students. Seoul:Korea Medical Book Publishing. 2001:203-7.
  25. Ahn SG, Lee SH. The core dermatology. Seoul:Korea Medical Book Publishing. 1999:181-4.
  26. College of Oriental Medicine Dermatology & Surgery Textbook Compilation Committee. Text of Traditional Korean Dermatology & Surgery. Busan:Sunwo. 2007:486-91.
  27. Korean Dermatological Association Educate Publication Committee. Revised Fourth Edition Dermatology. Seoul:Ryo Moon Gak P. Co. 2001:461-6.
  28. Hitoshi H. Diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases. Guangzhou:Seogwang Medical Bookstore. 1988:93.
  29. Korean Dermatological Association Educate Publication Committee. Dermatology. Seoul:Ryo Moon Gack P. Co. 1987:220-4.
  30. Borich L. Allergic rhinitis: Systemic inflammation and implications for management. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002:60-2.
  31. Im HS. The Experimental study of Gagambipachungpe-Eum on Acne. Graduate school of Kyung Hee University Master's thesis. 2000.
  32. Chrousos GP. Stress, chronic inflammation, and emotional and physical well-being: Concurrent effects and chronic sequelae. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106:S275-91. https://doi.org/10.1067/mai.2000.110163
  33. Friedmann PS, Tan BB, Musaba E. Pathogenesis and management of atopic dermatitis. Clin. Exp. Allergy. 1995;25: 799-806. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.1995.tb00021.x
  34. Koreck AI, Csoma Z, Bodai L, Ignacz F, Kenderessy AS, Kadocsa E, et al. Rhinophototherapy: A new therapeutic tool for the management of allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115:541-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2004.11.005
  35. McGinley KJ, et al. Regional variation in ctaneous propionibacteria. Correlations of P. acnes populations with sebaceaous secreation. J Clin Microbiol. 1980;12:672-5.
  36. Rollins BJ. Chemokines. Blood. 1997;90: 909-28.
  37. Mantovani A. The chemokine system: redundancy for robust outputs. Immunol Today. 1999;20;245-57.
  38. Dejardin E, Deregowski V, Chapelier M, Jacob N, Gielen J, Merville M, et al. Regulation of NF-${\kappa}Ba$ activation by $I{\kappa}B$ related proteins in adenocarcinoma cells. Oncogene. 1999;18:2567-77. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1202599
  39. Hideshima T, Chauhan D, Richardson P, Mitsiades C, Hayashi T, Munshi N, et al. NF-${\kappa}B$ as a therapeutic target in multiple meloma. J. Biol. Chem. 2002;277:16639-47. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M200360200
  40. Seong RG. Modern Acupuncture and Moxibustion. Seoul:Haengrim Publication. 1987:678.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 가천대학교