Metal-Urea-Montmorillonite Hybrid Incorporated with Citric Acid

  • Kim, Kwang Seop (Crop Environment Division, National Institute of Crop Science, RDA) ;
  • Kim, Min-Tae (Crop Environment Division, National Institute of Crop Science, RDA) ;
  • Ryu, Jin-Hee (Crop Environment Division, National Institute of Crop Science, RDA) ;
  • Choi, Jong-Seo (Crop Environment Division, National Institute of Crop Science, RDA) ;
  • Park, Ki Do (Crop Environment Division, National Institute of Crop Science, RDA) ;
  • Kang, Hang-Won (Crop Environment Division, National Institute of Crop Science, RDA) ;
  • Park, Man (Soil Science Lab. College of Agriculture and Life Science, Kyungpook National University)
  • Received : 2013.11.07
  • Accepted : 2013.12.02
  • Published : 2013.12.31


Massive intercalation of urea into montmorillonite (MUCH) was recently proposed to enhance urea use efficiency through smart suppression of emission of $NH_3$ and NOx. This study was to synthesize citrate-incorporated MUCH (Cit-MUCH) which can enhance suppression of $NH_3$ volatilization. The XRD pattern of Cit-MUCH was very similar to that of MUCH to indicate successful incorporation of citric acid into MUCH. Incorporation of citric acid was confirmed by the existence of $COO^-$ symmetric stretching vibration. During the initial 4 days after application, $NH_3$ volatilization from both bare and perilla-planted soils was much more suppressed by application of Cit-MUCH than MUCH. A peak volatilization rate decreased from 28.3 N mg $m^{-2}\;h^{-1}$ of MUCH-broadcasted soil to 22.2 N mg $m^{-2}\;h^{-1}$ of Cit-MUCH-broadcast soil. $NH_3$ volatilization was less in planted soil than bare soil for 72 hrs after application. These results showed that incorporation of citric acid led to increase in suppression of ammonia volatilization from urea-applied soils.


Ammonia volatilization;Urea use efficiency;Citric acid;Massive intercalation;Montmorillonite


Supported by : Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries


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