A Comparative Study on Factor Recovery of Principal Component Analysis and Common Factor Analysis

주성분분석과 공통요인분석에 대한 비교연구: 요인구조 복원 관점에서

  • Jung, Sunho (School of Management, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Seo, Sangyun (School of Management, Kyung Hee University)
  • Received : 2013.08.23
  • Accepted : 2013.10.28
  • Published : 2013.12.31


Common factor analysis and principal component analysis represent two technically distinctive approaches to exploratory factor analysis. Much of the psychometric literature recommends the use of common factor analysis instead of principal component analysis. Nonetheless, factor analysts use principal component analysis more frequently because they believe that principal component analysis could yield (relatively) less accurate estimates of factor loadings compared to common factor analysis but most often produce similar pattern of factor loadings, leading to essentially the same factor interpretations. A simulation study is conducted to evaluate the relative performance of these two approaches in terms of factor pattern recovery under different experimental conditions of sample size, overdetermination, and communality.The results show that principal component analysis performs better in factor recovery with small sample sizes (below 200). It was further shown that this tendency is more prominent when there are a small number of variables per factor. The present results are of practical use for factor analysts in the field of marketing and the social sciences.

본 연구에서는 시뮬레이션 방법을 사용해서 다양한 조건에서 주성분분석이 얼마나 잘 요인 구조를 복원할 수 있는지를 공통요인분석과 비교하여 체계적으로 평가하였다. 이 연구에서 요인 대 변수 비율, 공통성, 그리고 표본크기를 실험변수로 설정하였다. 주성분분석은 표본의 크기가 200개 이하인 경우 공통적으로 공통요인분석에 비해 더 우수한 요인구조의 복원력을 보여주었다. 특히, 요인 당 변수 수가 적은 경우, 주성분분석은 50개의 표본에서도 만족할 만한 수준의 요인복원능력을 보여주었다. 이와 더불어 공통성 수준 또한 낮은 경우 필요한 표본수는 100개로 늘어난다. 본 연구결과는 요인추출방법으로서 주성분분석의 선택의 근거를 제시하고 타당한 사용에 관한 가이드라인을 제시해 준다.



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