DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Study on Deterioration of Stone Monuments Constructed with Carbonate Rock by Acid Rain

탄산염질 암석으로 구성된 석조문화재의 산성비에 의한 손상 연구

  • Received : 2013.11.29
  • Accepted : 2013.12.19
  • Published : 2013.12.31

Abstract

The artificial rain (pH 4.0, pH 5.6 and pH 6.85) and weathering simulation test are applied in dolomitic marble for the prediction of deterioration of the stone monuments constructed with carbonate rock by acid rain. pH of the applied rain all increase to about neutral pH after reaction of marble. The contents of $Ca^{2+}$ and $Mg^{2+}$ have increased more than twofold in two acid rain and deionized neutral rain after reaction of marble. The weight of marble is expected to decrease $0.00037kg/m^2$ each test cycle by pH 4.0 rain. This weight reduction rate of marble is 1.4 and 3.1 times more in pH 5.6 and pH 6.85 rain respectively, and 3.7 times more in only artificial weathering test. The compressive strength of marble is expected to decrease 0.2468, 0.1791 and $0.1280kg/m^2$ per test cycle with pH 4.0, pH 5.6 and pH 6.85 rain, respectively. These results mean that more acidic rain more enfeeble the strength of marble. Dolomite and small amount of calcite are precipitated in the rains after reaction of marble.

Keywords

carbonate rock;dolomitic marble;stone monument;acid rain;weathering simulation

References

  1. Butlin, R.N., Yates, T.J.S., Murray, M., and Ashall, G. (1995) The United Kingdom national materials exposure programme. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 85, 2655-2660. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01186235
  2. Coote, A., Lewry, A., and Yates, T. (1989) Acid deposition and building materials, In: Acid Deposition, JWS. Longhurst, Hrsg. (eds), 265-286.
  3. Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea (2001) Study for the conservation and management of stone monument 2001, 1, 463-482 (in Korean).
  4. Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea (2002) Study for the conservation and management of stone monument 2002, 1, 71-72 (in Korean).
  5. Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea (2003) Study for the conservation and management of stone monument 2003, 1, 123-124 (in Korean).
  6. Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea (2004) Study for the conservation and management of stone monument 2004, 1, 33-34 (in Korean).
  7. Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea (2005) Study for the conservation and management of stone monument 2005, 1, 39-40 (in Korean).
  8. Do. J.Y. and Cho, H.G. (2010) Modeling study on deterioration of stone monuments constructed with silicate rock by acid rain. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, 23, 63-71 (in Korean with English abstract).
  9. Haneef, S., Dickinson, C., and Johnson, J. (1992) Simulation of the degradation of coupled stones by artificial acid rain. Studies in Conservation, 37, 105-112. https://doi.org/10.2307/1506402
  10. Jung, J.H., Shon, B.H., and Jung, M.H. (2008) Deterioration and weathering characteristics of the stone cultural properties in Gyeongju and surroundings. The Journal of the Research Institute for Silla Culture, 30, 243-272 (in Korean with English abstract).
  11. Kim, S.J. (2007) A study on estimation strength of stone construction cultural heritage by non-destructive test. Master's Thesis, Gwangju, Chosun University, 80p (in Korean with English abstract).
  12. Lee, S.I. (2000) Study on quality of atmospheric environment for the conservation of cultural properties in Gyeongju area I. Journal of Seorabul College, 18, 327-344 (in Korean with English abstract).
  13. Lee, S.I. (2002) Estimation for the reduction of atmospheric deposition of air acid pollutions in Silla culture region. Proceeding of the 34th meeting of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 79-80 (in Korean).
  14. Leysen, L., Roekens, R., and van Grieken, R. (1989) Air-Pollution-Induced chemical decay of a sandylimestone cathedral in Belgium. The Science of the Total Environment, 78, 263-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(89)90038-7
  15. Ministry of Environment Korea (2009) Annual report of ambient air quality in Korea, 2008, 399p (in Korean with English abstract).
  16. Roekens, E. and van Grieken, R. (1989) Rates of air pollution induced surface recession and material loss for a cathedral in Belgium. Atmospheric Environment, 23, 271-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(89)90119-4
  17. Tablebook Chemistry (1973) 6, VEB Deutscher Verlag fur Grundstoffindustrie.
  18. Vleugels, G.J. and van Grieken R.E. (1994) Weathering of treated and untreated limestones in atmospheric exposures. APT Bulletin, 23, 48-51.
  19. Do. J.Y., Choi, G.J., and Cho, H.G. (2009) Modeling study on deterioration of stone monuments in the Gyeongju Namsan mountain by acid rain. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, 22, 35-47 (in Korean with English abstract).

Cited by

  1. An Understanding of Elementary School Students on the Acid-Base, Acid Rain and Soil Acidification vol.27, pp.6, 2015, https://doi.org/10.13000/JFMSE.2015.27.6.1764
  2. Variation of Physical and Microstructural Properties of Limestone caused by Artificial Freezing and Thawing vol.25, pp.5, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7474/TUS.2015.25.5.435

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 국립문화재연구소