Effect of Direct Education on Breast Self Examination Awareness and Practice among Women in Bolu, Turkey

  • Gucuk, Sebahat (Family Medicine, Izzet Baysal Family Health Office) ;
  • Uyeturk, Ummugul (Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Abant Izzet Baysal University Faculty of Medicine)
  • Published : 2013.12.31


Aims: To evaluate breast self examination (BSE) practice and the effect of a training program conducted by healthcare professionals on BSE. Materials and Methods: Women were randomized into control and test groups with both groups completing a questionnaire and three independent interviews where their BSE practices were evaluated. Results: In all, 39.5% of the participants were previously provided information on BSE by healthcare professionals while 25.8% had no knowledge of BSE prior to enrollment. Compared to those informed about BSE through other means such as television, radio, and the internet, the scores of the first, second, and third visits were higher (p<0.05) in individuals who received BSE education from healthcare professionals and hospitals. Conclusions: BSE training provided by healthcare professionals may increase early breast cancer diagnosis and treatment rates by improving BSE awareness and practice.


  1. Achat H, Close G, Taylor R (2005). Who has regular mammograms? Effects of knowledge, belief, socioeconomic status, and health-related factors. Prev Med, 41, 312-20.
  2. Al-Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, Alabsi AM, et al (2012). Exploration of barriers to breast-self examination among urban women in Shah Alam, Malaysia: a cross sectional study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 1627-32.
  3. Anders CK, Hsu DS, Broadwater G, et al (2008). Young age at diagnosis correlates with worse prognosis and defines a subset of breast cancers with shared patterns of gene expression. J Clinical Oncol, 26, 3324-30.
  4. Andersson I, Janzon L (1997). Reduced breast cancer mortality in women under age 50: updated results from the Malmo Mammographic Screening Program. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr, 22, 63-67.
  5. Chu KC, Smart CR, Tarone RE (1988). Analysis of breast cancer mortality andstage distribution by age for the Health Insurance Plan clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst, 80, 1125-32.
  6. David MM, Ko L, Prudent N, et al (2005). Mammography use. J Natl Med Assoc, 97, 253-61.
  7. Discigil G, Sensoy N,Tekin N, Soylemez A (2007). Breast health: knowledge, behaviour and performance in a group of women living in the aegean region. Marmara Med J, 20, 29-36.
  8. Donmez YC, Dolgun E, Yavuz M (2012). Breast Selfexamination Practices and the Effect of a Planned Training Program in Western Turkey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 6159-61.
  9. Dundar PE, Ozmen D, Ozturk B, et al (2006). The knowledge and attitudes of breast self-examination and mammography in a group of women in a rural area in western Turkey. BMC Cancer, 6,43.
  10. Friedman LC, Nelson DV, Webb JA, Hoffman LP, Baer PE (1994). Dispositional optimism, self efficacy, and health beliefs as predictors of Breast Self Examination. Am J Prev Med, 10, 130-5.
  11. Gupta SK (2009). Impact of a Health Education Intervention Program Regarding Breast Self Examination by Women in a Semi-Urban Area of Madhya Pradesh, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 1113-7.
  12. Gurdal SO, Saracoglu GV, Oran ES, Yankol Y, Soybir GR (2012). The effects of educational level on breast cancer awareness: a cross-sectional study in Turkey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 295-300.
  13. Jamal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 62, 69-90.
  14. Juan HS, Kim M, Shankar S, Han W (2004). Predictors of adherence to screening mammography among Korean American women. Prev Med, 39, 474-481.
  15. Karayurt O, Ozmen D, Cakmakci AC (2008). Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast selfexamination among high school students in Turkey. BMC Public Health, 8, 1-8.
  16. Kuhns-Hastings J, Brakey MR, Marshall IA (1993). Effectiveness of a comprehensive breast cancer-screening class for women residing in rural areas. Appl Nurs Res, 6, 71-9.
  17. Lierman LM, Young HM, Powell-Cope G, Georgiadou F, Benoliel JQ (1994). Effects of education and support on BSE in older women. Nurs Res, 43, 158-63.
  18. Mittra I, Baum M, Thornton H, Houghton J (2000). Is clinical breast examination an acceptable alternative to mammographic screening? BMJ, 321, 1071-3.
  19. Oliver-Vazquez M, Sanchez-Ayendez M, Suarez-Perez E, Velez-Almodovar H, Arroyo-Calderon Y (2002). Breast cancer health promotion model for older Puerto Rican women: results of a pilot programme. Health Promot Int, 17, 3-11.
  20. Ozaras G, Durualp E, Civelek FE, Gul B, Unsal M (2010). Analysis of breast self-examination training efficiency in women between 20-60 years of age in Turkey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11, 799-802.
  21. Ozmen V (2011). Breast cancer screening: current controversies. J Breast Health, 7, 1-4.
  22. Ozturk M, Engin VS, Kisioglu AN, Yilmazer G (2000). Eff ects of Education on Knowledge and Attitude of Breast Self Examination Among 25+ Years Old Women. Eastern J Med, 5, 13-17.
  23. Rao RS, Nair S, Nair NS, Kamath VG (2005). Acceptability and effectiveness of a breast health awareness of a breast health awareness programme for rural women in India. Indian J Med Sci, 59, 398-402.
  24. Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Health. Information on reproductive health training guide for educators (2008). In Common cancer in the breast and reproductive organs. Ministry of Health Publication, Ankara, 120-1.
  25. Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Health, Refik Saydam Hygiene Center Presidency,
  26. School of Public Health (2011). The ministry of health of turkey health statistics yearbook 2010. In Morbitidy. Ministry of Health Publication, Ankara, 28.
  27. Stillman MJ (1977). Women's health beliefs about breast cancer and breast self-examination. Nursing Res, 26, 121-7.
  28. Tavafian SS, Hasani L, Aghamolaei T, Zare S, Gregory D (2009). Prediction of breast self-examination in a sample of Iranian women: an application of the Health Belief Model, 9, 37.
  29. Temiz M, Asian A, Inandi T, Beshirov E, Beyaz F (2008). Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of female teachers related to breast cancer and breast examination in Sothern Turkey. Breast Care, 3, 55-60.
  30. Thomas B, Stamler LL, Lafreniere KD, Out J, Delahunt TD (2002). Using the internet to identify womens' sources of breast health education and screening. Women & Health, 36, 33-48.
  31. Wood RY, Duffy ME, Morris SJ, Carnes JE (2002). The effect of an educational intervention on promoting breast selfexamination in older African American and Caucasian women. Oncol Nurs Forum, 29, 1081-90.
  32. Yoo B, Choi KS, Jung KW, Jun JK (2012). Awareness and practice of breast self-examination among Korean women: results from a nationwide survey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 123-5.

Cited by

  1. Assessment of the Effects of Breast Cancer Training on Women Between the Ages of 50 and 70 in Kemalpasa, Turkey vol.15, pp.24, 2015,
  2. Advances in Optimal Detection of Cancer by Image Processing; Experience with Lung and Breast Cancers vol.16, pp.14, 2015,